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117 Notes ch a p t er 1 1. Most audiences know this novel in its famous cinematic adaptation, Charulata (1964), by Satyajit Ray. 2. Chow, The Age of the World Target, 77. 3. Spivak, Death of a Discipline, 18 4. See Rebecca Walkowitz, “Close Reading at a Distance,” in Born Translated. 5. Chow, The Age of the World Target, 85 6. My translation with Taimoor Shahid of Junun-­e-­Intezaar has been published as The Madness of Waiting. 7. I address the interconnectedness of literary traditions and their significance for understanding the South Asian novel in my concluding chapter. 8. Seminal works on the Revolt of 1857 include Clare Anderson, Indian Uprising of 1857–­ 8: Prisons, Prisoners and Rebellion (New York: Anthem Press, 2007); Christopher Bayly, Indian Society and the Making of the British Empire (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1988). 9. The serial publication of novels in reputable literary journals such as Jamuna, Bharatbarsha, and Prabashi, edited by luminaries such as Rabindranath Tagore and Dijendranath Roy, made them the subject of serious consideration for the bhadralok (upper-­ caste, middle class) reading public, who voiced their concerns and often compelled the author to reconsider the plot of his story. 10. See Pritchett, Nets of Awareness. 11. The British government’s fear that any move in the direction of female education would jeopardize its colonial hold led it to declare in its Resolution on Native Female Education of 30 April 1868 that efforts to promote female 118 ❘ Notes education “would not meet with any great success” (quoted in Bilgrami, “Sir Syed’s Views on Female Education,” 78). 12. Minault, “Sayyid Ahmad Dehlavi and the Delhi Renaissance,” 290. 13. Inderpal Grewal argues in Home and Harem that the ideal Indian woman was created as the mirror opposite of the Victorian woman, even as she embodied Victorian virtues. 14. As Faisal Devji asserts, every one of the reformers saw the woman, the primary inhabitant of the private, “as the agent of a sinister, debilitating corruption that attacked vulnerable Muslim men from the inside, paganizing them and rendering them unable to defend the faith. . . . Such a paranoid situation could only have arisen when these men had themselves been marginalized by colonialism” (“Gender and the Politics of Space,” 150). 15. A notable feminist collection of Indian women’s writing is Tharu and Lalita, Women Writing in India. 16. Rajan, Real and Imagined Women, 31. 17. Ibid., 10. 18. Spivak, “Deconstructing Historiography,” 203. 19. In his study of the tenth-­ century Kashmiri historian Kalhana, Ranajit Guha explicates the nature of the “cathexis” that occurs in the writing of historiography. He suggests that Kalhana’s historiography is necessarily contaminated by feudalism, which “was branded on the body of the dominant consciousness itself, [and that] historiography, unable to jump out of its skin, was forced to work from within the ruling culture” (“Dominance without Hegemony and Its Historiography,” 219). This visceral metaphor encapsulates the bounded nature of human narrative. Since historiography cannot “jump out of its skin” to critically interrogate its formation of history, a writer too is implicated in the “dominant consciousness” of the “ruling culture” within which he writes. 20. Spivak, A Critique of Postcolonial Reason, 114. 21. Chow, The Age of the World Target, 79 22. Nazir Ahmad’s The Bride’s Mirror won a prize from the Crown for its depiction of the condition of native women. Bankimchandra Chatterjee served as a civil administrator for most of his life. 23. Spivak, “The Staging of Time in Heremakhonon,” 88. 24. In En-­gendering India Sangeeta Ray explores constructions of gender and nation in a number of late nineteenth-­and early twentieth-­ century works, both Indian and Victorian, to suggest the multitudinous ways in which the gendered subject is usurped for the nationalist project. In one of her chapters she studies Chatterjee’s mapping of woman onto nation in the context of novelists who grapple with this representation (Rabindranath Tagore) and others who reject it outright (Rokeya Sakhawat Hossein) in their fiction. In “Left to the Imagination,” Tejaswini Niranjana grapples with Chatterjee’s formulation of the inner and outer spheres in the context of Caribbean national identity. 25. P. Chatterjee, The Nation and Its Fragments, 9, 126. 26. “Colonial attitudes toward nationalist women depicted them as beings dependent upon their husband’s agency, and this idea of the ‘dependent subject’ was replicated in the way nationalist ideology rendered women as Notes ❘ 119 domestic(ated), and not political subjects” (Visweswaran, “Small Speeches, Subaltern Gender,” 86). 27...


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