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347 Glossary ablaut: A vowel change in related word forms accent: Distinct variations in pronunciation associated with a geographical region or social class accommodation: Shifting or adjusting speaking style to accentuate social similarities or differences with regard to other interactional participants acronym: The combination of the first letters of a string of words, pronounceable as a new word adjacency pair: Pairs of related utterances, such as question-answer or greetinggreeting affective filter: A barrier to the learning or acquisition processes owing to anxiety , lack of motivation, low self-confidence, or fear of failing affixation: The process of attaching a morpheme to a root or stem affricate: A consonant sound produced via complete closure followed by a fricative release allomorph: Variant forms of morphemes that have the same function, but apply in different environments allophone: One of two or more phonetic realizations of a phoneme ambiguity: The availability of more than one meaning or interpretation of an utterance approximant: Consonant sound produced with the least degree of airstream constriction ; also called frictionless continuant asymmetry: An inequality in gender-marked terms, such that there are noticeably more or fewer terms for one gender than the other babbling: Short or even long strings of consonant-vowel combinations; reduplicated babbling is in the form of repeated combinations (such as [bababa]) while variegated babbling refers to nonrepeated and varied combinations (such as [dadi:dudi:]) 348 | Glossary back-channeling: The use of minimal responses, such as mm-hmm or yeah, to signal attention to the speaker back-formation: The shortening of a word that results in a new meaning and a new part of speech bidialectalism: The ability to speak two or more dialects of the same language bilingual: Able to speak two languages bilingualism: The state of having competence in two (or more) languages blend: A new word resulting from combining parts of two words borrowing: The use of a linguistic form from one language in another language bound morpheme: A morpheme, such as a prefix or suffix, that must be attached to another morpheme or word bystander: One who is present but excluded from the speech event and whose access to the occasion is recognized by the participants child-directed speech: The language adults and even older children spontaneously adopt when speaking to infants, characterized by short, simple sentences uttered in a characteristic sing-song tone; also called parentese or caregiver speech clipping: A shortened version of a longer word closed word class: Functional word class that is closed to receiving new members co-text: The textual cues surrounding an interaction code-switching: The alternate use of two or more languages within one conversation collocation: Words that tend to co-occur communicative competence: A speaker’s knowledge of syntactical, morphological , and phonological rules of a language, as well as the ability to use utterances appropriately and according to context compound: A new lexeme formed by the combination of two, free lexical morphemes concordancer: A software tool or program used to engage with and analyze corpora consonant: A speech sound produced when air is obstructed before or while being released constituent: Word or group of words that function together as a single unit in a sentence constructivist approach: The idea that first-language learners construct knowledge about a language gradually, based on the language they are exposed to context: The situation in which an interaction occurs Glossary | 349 conversation analysis: An approach to language as a form of human social behavior that is essentially orderly conversational implicature: An underlying message conveyed by the flouting of a maxim conversion: The process of forming new words by assigning new parts of speech to existing words cooperative principle: The overall tendency of interlocutors to make an effort to cooperate with each other when communicating covert prestige: The prestige awarded a speaker who uses explicitly nonstandard or stigmatized forms deficit theory: The theory that women’s perceived social subordination to men is evident in their language use, which is similarly viewed as unequal, or deficient derivational morpheme: Affixes that produce, or derive, new words dialect: Language variety that can be identified by distinguishing features of pronunciation , grammar, and vocabulary difference theory: The theory that proposes a different-but-equal perspective on language use, such that men and women constitute two different cultures, each with their own communicative styles, one neither inferior nor subordinate to the other diphthong: A vowel sound whose quality changes within a syllable owing to a change of position of the articulators direct speech act: A...


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