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• 189 • A Note on the Citation of Zarzuela Libretti Libretti for zarzuela come in a multiplicity of editions and formats. For the most part, I have used the libretti published at the time of the premiere . But not always: many of the most prominent género chico works were published in a famous 1962 anthology (Antonio Valencia, ed., El género chico [Antología de textos completos]). In other places I have used reprints. For many works, I have used the libretti reissued by the Teatro de la Zarzuela as part of the souvenir programs for their productions, which also feature useful and enlightening scholarly essays. For those zarzuelas whose scores have been republished in a critical edition by the Instituto Complutense de Ciencias Musicales, I have used the libretti published with the musical score because they frequently have variant texts (such as scenes or dialogue added to a production after the premiere). To make citation as useful as possible given the number of possible libretti, I have avoided citing text by page number. Instead , text is cited by the act and scene divisions within a work, which tend to remain static across the various editions. Most published libretti tend to follow a standard method of numbering and dividing scenes. Capital Roman numerals are used for act divisions. Arabic numerals are used for scene divisions (thus, most género chico works will not have a capital Roman numeral in the citation). Lowercase Roman numerals are used to demark the entry or exit of a new character within a scene, what is sometimes referred to as a “French scene.” Since these occur fairly frequently in zarzuelas, they are generally as convenient as a page number for locating text—and are far more convenient when the reader has access to a different edition of a libretto. For readers interested in exactly which edition of a libretto I used for this book, it will be indicated at the first citation of a work in the notes and again in the bibliography . Where no libretto is cited in the bibliography, I have used the critical edition published in the corresponding ICCM score. This page intentionally left blank ...


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