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Index 227 Index 227 abolitionists, on colonization, 185–86 Africa, 171, 185–86 African Americans, 91, 181; agency of, 5, 21–22, 27, 31, 73, 75, 134; blamed for Reconstruction’s failure, 19, 22–23; capabilities of, 18–19, 21, 186; changes effected by, 28, 143–44; changing attitudes about, 25, 95; citizenship of, 14, 18, 28, 32, 71, 74, 94, 99, 101–2, 141–42, 156, 157; commemorations and, 164–65; countermemory of Civil War and Reconstruction, 3, 82; Dunning School’s contempt for, 20, 130; economic support for, 61, 77; fear of, 61, 79–80, 95; federal government and, 113–14, 117, 131–32; federal support for, 21, 26, 61, 80; free labor system and, 61, 117, 142; Freedmen’s Bureau aid for, 4, 146–47; freedwomen, 140–42, 145–47; as historians, 3–4, 50–51, 72; historiography increasingly focused on, 28, 56–57, 74, 76, 96, 135; labor of, 22, 28, 30, 61, 78, 140; lack of land of, 7, 26, 38; leaving South after Redemption, 144–45; missions to Africa, 185–86; mobility of, 135–36; northerners’ attitudes toward, 58–59, 61, 103, 159; northerners’ weak commitment to, 75, 117; organizations and institutions of, 7, 28, 32, 136, 144; political participation of, 8, 19, 29, 33, 73, 79, 101–2, 122, 155; in politics, 29, 39, 101–2, 122, 155; power over white southerners, 18–20; presidents’ support for, 123–24, 187; Radical Republicans advocating for, 4, 14, 70–71, 132; resisting efforts at control, 136–37; stereotypes of, 15, 18–19, 107n11, 164, 182; trying to acquire land, 7, 32, 135–36, 141; white southerners ’ treatment of, 13–14, 53, 133; withdrawing labor, 133–34, 176–77; women, 130, 133–34, 140–41, 144–45, 155–56; women working for and with, 61, 142–43; work ethics questioned, 80, 134–35. See also civil rights; suffrage After Slavery Project, 147 After the Glory: The Struggles of Black Civil War Veterans (Shaffer), 163 The Age of Hate: Andrew Johnson and the Radicals (Milton), 20 agency, of African Americans, 5, 147; in Civil War and Reconstruction, 21–22; importance of understanding , 31, 73, 134; postrevisionists minimizing, 27, 75; of slaves, 101–2; working-class, 72 agriculture, 85, 140, 173, 182; expansion of cotton growing, 184, 186; expansion of plantation system in, 184–85; globalization of, 184–85; index 228 agriculture (cont.) labor on sugar plantations, 138–39, 144; labor systems in, 29, 85, 131, 140–41, 171, 184; planters maintaining control of, 75, 135; planters trying to keep control of, 38, 134, 145, 174. See also plantation system American Colonization Society (ACS), 185 American Mediterranean: Southern Slaveholders in the Age of Emancipation (Guterl), 158 American Negro Slavery (Phillips), 107n11 Anderson, Eric, 83 Andrew Johnson (Gordon-Reed), 100 Andrew Johnson: A Biography (Trefousse ), 123 Andrew Johnson and Reconstruction (McKitrick), 51–53 Angels in the Machinery (Edwards), 121–22 “apprenticeship system” in British West Indies, 174 Archer, William, 2 Arenson, Adam, 157 Arkansas, overthrow of Reconstruction in, 13 Astor, Aaron, 35 At Freedom’s Edge: Black Mobility and the Southern White Quest for Racial Control (Cohen), 135–36 Awaiting the Heavenly Country: The Civil War and America’s Culture of Death (Schantz), 163 Baggett, James Alex, 78–79 Baker, Bruce E., 82, 147, 166 Baker, Ella, 122–23 Bardaglio, Peter W., 79–80 Barreyre, Nicholas, 119 Bassett, John Spencer, 3 Beale, Howard Kennedy, 4, 23, 72–73, 107n15, 131 Beard, Charles, 70 Beard, Mary, 70 Becoming Free in the Cotton South (O’Donovan), 35, 145, 154–55 Been in the Storm So Long: The Aftermath of Slavery (Litwack), 31, 96, 153–54 Before Jim Crow: The Politics of Race in Post-Emancipation Virginia (Dailey), 35 Belz, Herman, 26 Ben Tillman and the Reconstruction of White Supremacy (Kantrowitz), 160 Benedict, Michael Les, 5, 26, 74–75, 95, 100 Bennett, Lerone, Jr., 110n44 Bercaw, Nancy, 141, 156 Bergeron, Paul, 64n5 Berlin, Ira, 97 “The Best Men”: Liberal Reformers in the Gilded Age (Sproat), 120 Beyond Redemption: Race, Violence, and the American South after the Civil War (Emberton), 155 biographies, 123–25, 160 The Birth of a Nation (Griffith film), 20, 91–92 Black Codes, 13–14, 53–54, 137, 145; defenders of, 20, 38, 50 Black Power U.S.A.: The Human Side of Reconstruction, 1867–1877 (Bennett ), 110n44 Black Reconstruction: An Essay Towards a History of the Part Which Black Folk Played (Du Bois), 21–22, 51, 92–93, 113, 176–77 Blackmon, Douglas A., 104 Blaine, James G...

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