3. Anthropology in Portugal: The Case of the Portuguese Society of Anthropology and Ethnology (SPAE), 1918
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53 3 Anthropology in Portugal The Case of the Portuguese Society of Anthropology and Ethnology (spae), 1918 In recent years, several works have been published on the history of anthropology in specific national contexts (e.g., Stocking 1974, 1995; Kuklick 1991; Barth et al. 2005; Ranzmaier 2011) but little on the history of anthropology in Portugal—and the exceptions have largely been written from and for the Portuguese community (e.g., Areia and Rocha 1985; Branco 1986; Pereira 1986, 1998; Pina-Cabral 1991; Leal 2000, 2006; Roque 2001; Santos 2005; Sobral 2007; Matos 2013). Even then, with the exception of some authors such as Guimarães (1995), Pereira(1998),Roque(2001),Santos(2005),andmyownwork(Matos 2013), it has been uncommon for Portuguese anthropologists and historians to recognize the existence of a distinct school of anthropology connected to the city of Porto, originating with the Portuguese Society of Anthropology and Ethnology (spae, Sociedade Portuguesa de Antropologia e Etnologia) and its legacy. This chapter intends, therefore , to contribute to a more inclusive international history of anthropology , as suggested by Richard Handler (2000), who reminded us of the need to interpret past anthropological practices in relation to specific historical and cultural moments. The spae was founded in the city of Porto on December 26, 1918, withitsfirstgeneralmeeting,whenitsstatutewasapproved.Theauthor of the initiative was António Augusto Esteves Mendes Correia (1888– 1960). Mendes Correia obtained his degree in medicine at the Porto Surgery Medical School in 1911 and developed both anthropological andpoliticalinterests.1Intheprocessofcreatingspae,MendesCorreia counted on the support of some elder figures, such as Luís Bastos de Freitas Viegas (1869–1928),2 Aarão Ferreira de Lacerda (1863–1921),3 Patrícia Ferraz de Matos 54 Patrícia Ferraz de Matos and Bento Carqueja (1860–1935).4 The society’s logo (fig. 1) illustrates the initial division between anthropology (the study of mankind in its physicalandbiologicaldimensions) andethnology(thestudyofmankind in its social and cultural dimensions). spae held its activities at the facilities of the Anthropology Institute of the University of Porto (iaup); organized several scientific meetings; and regularly published the Trabalhos de Antropologia e Etnologia (tae), which included a bibliographical chapter aimed at informing the reader on developments in anthropology in Portugal and abroad. The creation of spae was also understood as a response from Porto, acityinthenorthofPortugal,tothefailedattempttocreateananthropologicalsocietyinCoimbraaroundtheoldestuniversityinthecoun try .5 As with other such societies in Europe and the United States, spae gathered a small group of savants and experts who had shared interests with other members of their academic and social environments . Considering the creation dates of the anthropology societies in Europe—in Paris (1858), Berlin (1869), Vienna (1870), Italy (1871), and Sweden (1872)—spae (1918) was a late starter. Nevertheless, like otherinternationalsocieties(Ranzmaier2011),itactuallyturnedoutto beaconsiderablydynamicinstitutionalspacefromascientificpointof view, as well as a privileged environment for debate and the exchange ofideas.JoaquimRodriguesdosSantosJúnior,formerstudentandone of the main collaborators of the society’s main founder, argued that spae was born due to the “resolute will” of Mendes Correia—a man who “was able to gather around him a company of superior men” like Aarão Ferreira de Lacerda (1863–1921), Luís Bastos de Freitas Viegas, and Bento Carqueja, who, along with him, “have built the Society’s initial core” (Júnior 1969:38). In order to obtain a better knowledge of spae’s activities and operating methods,6 I analyzed its statute and the minutes pertaining to its members’ meetings and the events it organized. The statute approved at the first general meeting of December 26, 1918, remained in effect until the middle of the 1980s, with some minor changes introduced in 1924.7Thisstatutewasorganizedintwenty-fourarticlesdividedintosix chapters:objectives,headquarters,andfiscalyear;members;meetings; funding;administration;andgeneralandprovisionalterms.According Anthropology in Portugal 55 toarticle1,chapter1ofthe1918statute,the objectiveofspaewas“topromoteandcultivate , in Portugal, the study of anthropologicalmethods ,zoologicalanthropology, ethnic anthropology, prehistoric anthropologyandarchaeology ,experimentalpsychology , ethnography, and the scientific branches of its derivative or applied sciences , such as military, pedagogical, clinical ,criminal,forensicanthropologies,etc.” (Estatutos da spae 1918:3). Article 1 also mentions that, in order to reach its aims, spae must 1. organize periodic and extraordinary scientific meetings; 2. publish original works and studies on anthropology and anthropological sciences; 3. organize and maintain a library with a reading cabinet; 4. establish contacts with counterpart societies both in Portugal and abroad; 5. intend to organize anthropological, archaeological, and ethnographic collections and to promote anthropological methods , mainly among doctors, professors, travelers, and colonial citizens; 6. publicize as much as possible the advantages of anthropological methods in schools and as a contributing element for scientific police investigation...