In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:

265 Index A abiotic conditions/interactions, 24, 25, 26–28figs. abrupt changes, 36, 97, 209 adaptation, 132, 221–22; innovation and, 38–39; of organisms to new environments, 134; planning for, 103, 188 adaptation pathways, 103–4, 221–22; critical elements of, 221; flexible adaptation pathways, 222–23box; New York City example, 222–23box adaptive capacity, 90–91, 108; in complex systems, 90–91, 108; of coupled human and natural systems , 29, 41; cross-scale interactions and, 50–51, 52fig., 90, 215; differences across regions, 217–18; early warning systems and, 41, 90; heterogeneity and, 50, 50fig., 90– 91, 215; increasing, 218; innovation and, 90; modularity and, 50, 50fig., 90, 91, 101, 215; self-organization and, 90; time scales and, 102 adaptive co-evolution, 40 adaptive cycle, time scales and, 51, 51fig. adaptive evolution, 40 adaptive systems, characteristics of, 213 agents, 85 air pollution, planetary boundaries and, 210 Aldana, M., 42, 160 Allen, C. R., 29–30, 38, 50, 82, 98, 109, 158, 213 Anthropocene, 11, 60, 91, 92fig., 207 anthropogenic changes, 25, 137 archetypes, 209–10, 211fig. assumptions, 53, 54, 189; challenging, 60, 69, 165, 189–90, 205–6, 217–18; modifying through scenarios, 224 atmosphere of Earth, 60 B Bak, P., 41, 86 Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES), 69 barrier islands, 31–32, 34, 34fig. Bayesian approach, 167 Bettencourt, L. M. A., 12–15, 15fig., 19, 38, 82, 100, 104, 135, 153 big data, 174 biodiversity, 34, 93, 136; bird diversity , 120–24, 122–23figs.; of deltas and estuaries, 31–33; ecosystem function and, 70–71, 136; genetic diversity, 77; human impacts on, 69–70, 71–72, 124, 125fig., 134; humans as selective agents, 135– 36, 137; hybrid networks and, 22; 266 index biodiversity (continued) planetary boundaries and, 210; urbanization and, 36box, 69–72, 77, 152 biogeochemistry, 75–77; human effects on, 124, 125fig. biotic conditions/interactions, 24, 25, 26–28figs., 151–52, 155–57table biotic homogenization, 68 biotic interactions, 151–52 bird diversity, 120–24, 122–23figs.; habitat loss and, 120, 121, 122fig., 123fig.; human decisions and, 124, 125fig.; impact of development on, 123fig.; loss of native species, 120– 21, 122; novel competition, 122fig., 123fig., 124; slow and fast variables in, 123fig. birds: behavior, 133; trait changes and urban signature, 140table, 143; urban adaptation of, 144box Bloomberg, Michael, 172–73, 220, 222box Bode’s law, 126 bonds, financing with, 221 boundaries, planetary, 210 Brock, W. A., 169, 184, 196 Brown, J. H., 14–16, 212 C Calvino, Italo, xii, 10 carbon cycling, 70, 76–77; network for, 66fig.; urban C cycle, 76–77; urban development and, 114–18 carbon emissions, 117, 124–25, 129fig. carbon stocks and fluxes, 114–18, 117–18figs.; mechanisms affecting, 115, 117fig.; nonlinear variations in, 118, 118fig.; time scales for, 115, 116; urban development impact on, 118fig., 130 Carpenter, S. R., 108, 126, 168–69, 183–84, 190, 196, 203–4, 228 cascading effects, 91, 162, 209 causality, 166–67 Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 170 challenges and opportunities: planetary , 209–12; scientific challenges, 51–57, 52fig. change, 25, 42–43, 80, 208–9; abrupt changes, 36, 97, 104, 209; acceler­ ation of, 47box; causes and pathways of, 85; as driver and effect, 42, 65fig.; ecological resilience and, 40fig.; as essential, 98, 106, 108; evolutionary, 160–61; human experience of, 209, 218; hybrid ecosystems and, 207; including in urban planning, 98; increase in rate of, 92fig.; increasing capacity for, 218; planetary time scale and, 208, 214; rapid evolutionary change, 61–62, 133, 135, 136; urbanization and, 47box, 64; and vulnerability to extreme events, 85–86, 93fig. Changizi, M. A., 20–21 Chapin III, F. S., 24, 49, 49table, 229 China, forestation efforts of, 214 cities: changing boundaries of, 45box; critical point for, 90; as drivers of environmental change, 46box, 47box; emergence of, 28; evolution of, 28–29, 31; growth of, 43–47box, 46fig.; historical human settlements , 24, 25–26, 27fig.; as hybrid ecosystems, 24–27, 28fig., 207–8; innovation and, xi, 27; as integrated system, 61; megacities, 47box; megalopolis, 45box, 46fig.; metropolis, 47box; scaling relationships in, 12–15; science of, xiv–xv, 11, 24–27, 49–50, 108, 168, 175–77, 208; size of, 12, 38, 43, 153; steering toward desirable outcomes , 26–27, 28fig.; urban agglomerations , 43–47box, 61. See also hybrid cities; urbanization index 267 cities that think like planets, 207–24; diversity of solutions, 214; imagination of future cities, 3–10, 214– 17; principles of, 214 city planning. See urban planning climate agreement (Dec. 2015), 213– 14, 219 climate change: adaptation, elements of...

pdf

Additional Information

ISBN
9780295806600
Related ISBN
9780295996660
MARC Record
OCLC
951678414
Pages
232
Launched on MUSE
2016-08-23
Language
English
Open Access
No
Back To Top

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. Without cookies your experience may not be seamless.