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219 NOTES introduction 1. The reference collection includes 162 mola blouses and a total of 422 mola panels. See appendix B for details about the criteria for selection of this reference collection and the characteristics examined. 2. Commisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe, “Cuadro III.5—Población Indígena Según Grupo Al Que Pertenece. Censos 1990–2000,” LCW20-panama.pdf. 3. Lippincott and Dame (1964); Ropp (1982); Howe (1997, 1998, 2009). 4. Ropp (1982). 5. Overy (1999). 6. Personal observations made during a trip to Panama, February–March 2010. 7. Sherzer (1994: 902). 8. Hirschfeld (1977b: 115). 9. Howe (1986: 11). 10. Ibid. This is explored in detail in chapter 1. 11. Howe (1986: 15). 12. Lane (1983: 141–45). 13. Nordenskiöld (1979 [1928]); Nordenskiöld (1979 [1930]); Nordenskiöld with Kantule (1979 [1938]). 14. De Smidt (1948); Marshall (1950). 15. Taylor (2004: 82–88). 16. This is the title of a book by Marsh (1934). See also Harris (1926). 17. Keeler (1969); Kapp (1972); Parker and Neal (1977); Lane (1983); Tice (1989); Perrin (1999). 18. The exhibition opened 16 November 1997 at the Fowler Museum, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), ran until 5 April 1998, and then traveled to other US cities: 1998–1999, the National Museum of the American Indian, New York City; 1999, the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago; 2002–2004, the Maxwell Museum of Anthropology , Albuquerque, New Mexico; and 2005–2006, the Museum of Man, San Diego. The National Museum of the American Indian opened in Washington, DC, in 2004. 19. Other recent work includes Marks (2012). 20. Appadurai (1996: 27–47); originally published in 1990. 21. Robertson (1995: 28). 22. Ibid. 23. Ibid.: 30. 24. Appadurai (1996: 32). 25. Appadurai (1996). 26. See chapter 6. 27. This strategy is explored further in chapter 6 in a discussion on the isolationist theory put forward by Chernela (2011). 28. Langebaek (1991: 374). 29. Ibid.: 375. 30. Salvador (1997c: 154) cites Prebble (1968), The Darien Disaster (London: Secker & Warburg), as the source. 31. Langebaek (1991: 379). 32. Ibid.: 376. 33. Ibid.: 378. 34. Welters and Lillethun (2011: xxv). 35. Paulicelli and Clark (2009: 1). 36. The definition and classification of dress is based on the work of Eicher and Roach-Higgins (1992: 15–16). See the application to Kuna dress in chapter 3. This definition of dress has been adopted: “Dress is a coded sensory system of non-verbal communication that aids human interaction in space and time. The codes of dress include visual as well as other sensory modifications (taste, smell, sound, and feel) and supplements (garments, jewelry, and accessories) to the body, which set off either or both cognitive and affective processes that result in recognition or lack of recognition by the viewer. As a system, dressing the body by modifications and supplements often does facilitate or hinder consequent verbal or other communication” (Eicher 1995a: 1). 37. Wafer (1903 [1699]). 220 Introduction Notes to Pages 30–38 38. Vollmer, referring to the gifting of cloth by the Spanish during its occu­ pation of the Philippines, mentions that this “custom also carried subtle messages of subjugation that encouraged the authentication of Western fashions among the inhabitants of the Philippines” (2010: 71). The indigenization of trade cloth as a form of resistance by the Kuna Indians is also discussed in chapter 2. 39. Early reports mentioned by Wafer (1903 [1699]: 137) and later reports by Roberts (1827), Bell (1909), and Verrill (1918), each cited by Salvador (1997c: 153–56). See chapter 2 for further discussion of body painting. 40. Bell (1909: plates 13 and 14); Pittier (1912: 654). 41. Theodossopoulos (2012) describes changes in Embera dress. Note that he advises that Choco Indians are now known as Embera or Wounaan. 42. Joyce, in the introduction to the 1933 edition of Wafer’s New Voyage and Description of the Isthmus of America, notes that the 1699 edition was not a direct transcription of Wafer’s original, that “one perceives the shadow of a hand equipped with a sure and discreet pencil moving across the manuscript of the surgeon-buccaneer, stabilizing spelling, inserting a telling phrase, suppressing untimely facetiousness, always making the most of a subject likely to appeal to readers yet deleting extravagances: the hand, in fact, of a competent sub-editor” (1933 [1699]: lxii). Joyce also warns that most other publications about Darien published around this time relied heavily on...


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