publisher colophon

Index

Academia (the networking and repository service), 173, 218n7

Academic freedom, 10, 13, 14, 23, 55, 59, 63, 78–79, 83–84, 86, 91, 93, 163, 192–193n4

Access. See also Digital divide; Harm to research or researchers; Knowledge; Lay readers; Libraries; Machines; Open access; Open-access journals and publishers; Repositories; Toll-access (or conventional) journals and publishers

barriers, 4–5, 7, 22, 26, 30–43, 100, 117

gaps, 4, 19, 30, 40, 42, 43, 116–117, 119

permission barriers, 5–9, 26–27, 34–35, 37, 50, 65–66, 115, 122, 125, 145, 184n11, 191n21

price barriers, 4–8, 25, 26–27, 29–35, 37, 41–42, 65–66, 115, 122

revolution in, 1–2, 20

for scholarly purposes, 5–6, 8, 73–74

universal, 26–27

unmet demand, 116–117, 119, 134

Adema, Janneke, 200n7

Ad Hoc Committee on Fair Use and Academic Freedom, 191n20

Advertising, 16–17, 135–137

AIDS Vaccine Advocacy Coalition, 118

Alberti, Fay Bound, xi

Alemayehu, Muluken Wubayehu, 189n9

Alliance for Taxpayer Access (ATA), 204n18, 220

American Association of University Presses (AAUP), 110, 210n10

American Physical Society (APS), 151, 215n2

American Physiological Society (APS), 178n6, 215n4

American Scientist Open Access forum, 180n7

American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB), 159

Arcadia, xi

Arizona State University, 192n3, 197–198n20

Arthritis Research Campaign, 195n9

Articles. See Journals (in general); Postprints; Preprints; Versions

Artificial scarcity, 37, 48

Arts, 30, 97

ArXiv, 57, 150–151, 188n7, 209n7, 215n2. See also Green OA (OA through repositories); Physics; Repositories

Association of American Publishers (AAP), 152

Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL), 157, 216n7

Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers (ALPSP), 207–208n2, 216n9

Association of Research Libraries (ARL), 178n4, 181n2, 182n7, 183nn9–10, 208n4

Attribution, 7, 8, 23, 69. See also Impact

Australian National University, 197–198n20

Authors. See also Attribution; Career-building for faculty; Copyright; Impact; Prestige; Researchers; Royalties; Waivers

author addenda, 172

books and, 106–111

citations and, 15–16, 50, 102, 145, 154

control growth of OA, 77–78, 169–174

freed from market pressures by salaries, 2–4, 12–14, 17

interests in OA, 15–16

not paid for their journal articles, 2–4, 9–10, 12, 17, 21, 37, 38, 44, 64, 106–107, 111, 116, 130, 132

rights retention and, 22–23, 80–83, 87, 90, 93, 126–129, 149

sales and, 1, 5, 12–13, 15, 107–110, 129–130

Bailey, Charles W., Jr., 177n1, 208n4, 221

Baldwin, Peter, xi

Balkin, Jack, xi

Bauerlein, Mark, 181n2

Beckett, Chris, 157, 216n8

Bennett, Douglas, xi–xii

Bergstrom, Carl, 184n15

Bergstrom, Ted, 183n9, 184n15

Berkman Center, 197–199n20

Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities, 7–8, 71, 177n1

Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing, 7–8, 71, 177n1

Bing, 56. See also Search and search engines

Bin Shafiei, Anuar, 210n9

BioMed Central, 160, 212n14, 218n8

Björnshauge, Lars, 191n20

Blogs, 49, 69, 100, 114, 163–164. See also Social media

Books, 17, 33, 49, 98–99, 106–112. See also Digitization; Print

ebook readers (hardware), 107, 108

experiments with OA books, 108, 109, 110, 200n7, 200–201n8, 201n10

green OA, 136

growth of OA books, 110, 111–112

monograph crisis, 33, 183–184n10

OA editions sometimes boost net sales of print editions, 107, 109–110, 200–201n8, 201n9

royalties and, 106–108

superseded by journals as the primary literature of science, 102

textbooks, 17, 98

Bosch, Stephen, 181n2, 182n7

Boycotts, 24–25

British Library, 218n8

Brown, Sheridan, 196n16

Brunel University, 193n5

Budapest Open Access Initiative, 7, 19, 71, 177n1, 180n9

Business models. See Artificial scarcity; Funding; Open-access journals and publishers; Revenue; Subsidies; Toll-access (or conventional) journals and publishers

California Institute of Technology (Caltech), 208–209n4

Cambridge University, 208–209n4

Cancer Research UK, 195n9

Career-building for faculty, 12–13, 15, 16, 60, 130. See also Attribution; Authors; Impact; Prestige; Promotion and tenure

Carnegie Mellon University, 192n3

Censorship, 26

Center for Earthquake Research and Information, 202n13

Centre for Research Communications, 195n9

Chan, Leslie, 219

Charities, 14, 83–85, 160

Citations. See Attribution; Impact

Clark, Len, xii

Clarke, Roger, 185n16

Clay, William Lacy, 215n4

College of Mount Saint Vincent, 193n5

Compact for Open-Access Publishing Equity (COPE), 214n19

Concordia University, 194n5

Congress, 72, 152

Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire (CERN), 146–147. See also Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics SCOAP3

Consorzio Interuniversitario Lombardo per l'Elaborazione Automatica (CILEA), 208–209n4

Contracts, 23, 33, 68, 83–88, 129, 172, 196n15

Conventional journals and publishers. See Toll-access (or conventional) journals and publishers

Conyers, John, 206n3, 215n4

Coombs, Karen, 208n4

Copyright, 5, 129–132. See also Access; Attribution; Fair use; Libre OA; Licenses; Mandates; Misunderstandings; Permission; Policies; Public domain; Waivers

abolition of, 21

all-rights-reserved, 67–70, 72–73

author control of, 9, 77–78

Budapest/Bethesda/Berlin (BBB) statements and, 7–8, 19, 71

copyright holder consent, 9, 21, 22, 68, 125

derivative works, 8, 69, 74

expiration of, 69

as incentive for author productivity, 129–132

limited role for, 7–8

protects publishers more than authors, 5, 130

protects revenue, 125, 126, 130

publishers and, 5, 9, 34, 39, 58–60, 125–132, 156

reform of, 21, 44, 132, 166

rights retention and, 80–83, 87, 90, 93, 126–129, 149

as temporary government-granted monopoly, 39

toll-access journals and, 125–126, 129

transfers of, 5, 9, 23, 53, 68, 105, 125–126, 129, 130, 173

U.S. statute, 65–66

Creative Commons, 68–69, 72–73, 190n16, 191n20. See also Libre OA; Licenses

Credit Suisse First Boston, 185n17

Crow, Raym, 209n6

Cultural obstacles, 9, 111–112, 163–168

Cuplinskas, Darius, xii

Current awareness, 35, 122

Custom, 2, 4, 10, 20

Cystinosis Research Network, 118

Dallmeier-Tiessen, Suenje, 209–210nn7–8

Dark deposits, 52, 79, 81–82. See also Green OA (OA through repositories); Repositories

Darnton, Robert, xi, 182n5

DataCite, 218n8

Data Conversion Laboratory, xi

Davis, Crispin, 43, 186n21

Davis, Philip M., 178n6

Deposits. See Green OA; Repositories

Developing countries, 30–32, 73, 97

Digital Curation Centre, 218n8

Digital divide, 27

Digital rights management (DRM), 143

Digitization, 35, 52, 60, 98, 99, 111, 136, 174, 190n17. See also Books; Print

Dillon, Cy, 205n22

Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), 72, 169, 182n3, 191n20, 218n1, 220

Directory of Open Access Repositories, 188n6, 218n6, 219

Disney, 183n8

Donnell, R. W., 203n16

Dublin Institute of Technology, 193n5

Duke University, 194n7

Earlham College, xi

Economic Implications of Alternative Scholarly Publishing Models (EI-ASPM), 207–208n2

Edgar, Brian, 212–213nn15–16

Edinburgh Napier University, 195–196n12

Edith Cowan University, 193n5

Editors. See also Peer review; Referees

generally not paid by journals, 17–18, 19, 20, 25, 37, 44, 142, 184n13

journal quality and, 171

peer review and, 19–20, 25, 37, 44, 64, 103–104, 139–140, 170

Ellis, Michael, 202n13

Elsevier, 32, 33, 43, 126, 152, 183nn8–9, 213n18

Embargoes, 60, 65, 79, 80, 110, 140, 154, 155, 159

Emery, Jill, 208n4

Emory University, 192n3

Enabling Open Scholarship (EOS), 220

EPrints repository, 194n8

European Commission for the Digital Agenda, 180n12

ExxonMobil, 183n8

Fair Copyright in Research Works Act, 206n3

Fair use, 65–68, 69, 70, 73–75, 191n21. See also Copyright; Libre OA

four characteristics relevant to OA, 65–66

judgment calls and, 35, 70, 74–75

U.S. law on, 65–66, 190n13

Fear, 17, 20, 37, 60, 74, 88, 104, 105, 139, 158–160, 165, 191n21

Fisher, Julian, 213n16

Frankel, Simon, 194n7

Fry, Jenny, 189n9

Funding, 37–39, 80, 83, 88–89, 142, 152, 156–157, 170

charitable, 14, 83–85, 160

funding contracts, 83, 87–88, 129

grants and, 13–14, 23, 80–84, 88, 129, 150, 170

National Institutes of Health (NIH) and, 80, 83–88, 126, 128, 150, 152, 155, 157

public funding, 14, 38–39, 83, 97, 116, 118, 133, 160

redirection of funds from toll-access to OA, 145–147

research and, 37–39, 80, 83, 88–89, 142, 152, 156–157, 170

Wellcome Trust and, 80, 83, 85, 87, 134, 150

Funding agencies. See also Funding; Mandates; National Institutes of Health (NIH); Policies; Research Councils UK; Wellcome Trust

OA policies, 54, 71, 72, 77–78, 80, 83–84, 89, 94, 126, 128, 129, 149–150, 155–157, 165, 172

paying publication fees, 136, 139, 170

private, 14, 83–85, 160

public, 14, 38–39, 83, 97, 116, 118, 133, 160

as stakeholders, x, 77–78, 165

upstream from publishers, 129

value adders, 37

Gargouri, Yassine, 178n6

Gasser, Urs, xii

Gates Foundation, 197–198n20

Gifts and gift culture, 14, 19, 38, 116, 196n15

Gold OA (OA through journals), 6, 18, 53. See also Green OA (OA through repositories); Libre OA; Misunderstandings; Open-access journals and publishers; Peer review

additional resources for, 220

advantages over green OA, 60–62, 65, 137

complementary with green OA, 58–65

gratis and libre OA, 53, 60–62, 67, 72–73, 129, 207n4

making your own work gold OA, 169–171

myths about, 137–140, 192–193n4

policies and, 77–79, 83–84, 91–93, 134

Google, 56. See also Search and search engines

Gratis OA, 65–75. See also Libre OA

attainability of, 71–73, 191n19

books and, 111

disparagement of, 73

fair use and, 66–67, 71–73

gold OA and, 67

green OA and, 67, 71

success stories, 71–72

Gray, Jim, 112

Green OA (OA through repositories), 6, 18, 53. See also Academic freedom; ArXiv; Dark deposits; Embargoes; Fear; Gold OA (OA through journals); Mandates; Misunderstandings; Policies; Postprints; Preprints; Prestige; Repositories; Self-archiving

additional resources on, 219

advantages over gold OA, 59–60

compatible with publishing in a toll-access journal, 54–56, 57, 59–60, 71, 84, 126, 154–155, 171, 172, 188n4

complementary with gold OA, 58–65

costs, 51, 53, 59, 62, 134, 136, 208–209n4

gratis and libre OA, 53, 60–62, 67, 71–72, 90–91, 93, 197–198n20

journal cancellations and, 62–65, 149–161

libraries and, 155–157

making your own work green OA, 171–174

mandates and, 54, 58–59, 63, 78–79, 84, 90–91, 93, 150–156

peer review and, 59, 63–64, 72, 102, 126, 171–174

permission and, 54, 57, 65, 100, 154–155, 172–174

physics and, 150–151

policies and, 59, 77–79, 83–84, 93, 149, 161

waivers and, 155

Guédon, Jean-Claude, 178n4

Haank, Derk, 160

Hagemann, Melissa, xii

Handicapped users, 27

Harm to research or researchers, 4, 5, 19, 30, 32, 34–35, 70, 74–75, 91, 99, 112, 138, 139

Harnad, Stevan, 16, 53, 178–179n6, 193n6, 207–208n2

Harris poll, 118

Harvard Open Access Project (HOAP), 220

Harvard Open-Access Publishing Equity (HOPE), 210–211n11

Harvard University, xi, 30–31, 80–82, 87–88, 149–150, 182n5, 194n7, 197–198n20

Henderson, Kittie, 181n2, 182n7

Hess, Charlotte, 178n3

Hilton, John, III, 200–201n8

Hindawi, Ahmed, 159

Hindawi Publishing, 159–160, 216–217n11

Hitchcock, Steve, 178n6, 216n5, 216n8

Houghton, John, 133, 207–208n2, 213n16

House Judiciary Committee Subcommittee on Courts, the Internet, and Intellectual Property, 215n4

Howard, Jennifer, 199–200n4

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 195n9

Humanities, 7, 33, 97, 114–115, 144

Hybrid journals, 140–142, 210–211n11, 211–212n13. See also Journals (in general); Open-access journals and publishers; Toll-access (or conventional) journals and publishers

Impact. See also Attribution; Authors; Career-building for faculty; Citations; Prestige

citation impact, 15–16, 50, 102, 145, 154, 178–179n6, 187n2, 216n5

writing for impact rather than money, 2, 10, 38, 130

Incentives, 2, 15–17, 19, 57, 60, 86, 111, 121–122, 129–131, 139, 155–157. See also Authors; Career-building for faculty; Impact; Libraries; Mandates; Open-access journals and publishers; Policies; Prestige; Researchers; Revenue; Toll-access (or conventional) journals and publishers

for authors to make their work OA, 15–17, 29–48, 57, 60, 78, 86, 87, 88, 121–122

for authors to publish in certain journals, 60

for authors to write, 2, 12–13, 15, 19, 129–131

for developers to create tools optimized for OA literature, 121–122

for editors and referees to participate in peer review, 19

for funding agencies and universities to adopt OA policies, 14, 77–78

for libraries to cancel toll-access journals, 30–32, 157–159

for libraries to subscribe to toll-access journals, 155–157

for publishers to lower their standards, 40, 139

for publishers to make their work OA, 121–122, 145, 159

for search engines to index OA repositories, 57

Indian Institute of Science, 30

Information overload, 120–121, 205nn23–24

Ingelfinger rule, 173

Ingenta, 147

Inger, Simon, 157, 216n8

Institute of Physics (IOP), 151, 215n2

International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers (STM), 184n12,

207–208n2

International Center for Tropical Agriculture, 195–196n12

International Communication Association, 191n20

International Conference on Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 199n4

Internet, 1, 7, 9, 109

access to, 7, 25, 48, 116 (see also Digital divide)

Budapest Open Access Initiative and, 19

generational change and, 164–165

makes OA possible, 1, 9, 19–20

peer review and, 165–166

widens distribution and reduces costs, 44

ISI Citation Database, 187n2

Jacobs, Neil, 205n25, 216n10

Jarvis, John, 203n16

Jefferson, Thomas, 46

Jensen, Michael, 109–110, 210n9

Johnson, Richard, xii, 204n17

Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC), 134

Joseph, Heather, xii

Journalism and journalists, 130, 137. See also Newspapers

Journals (in general). See also Hybrid journals; Open-access journals and publishers; Peer review; Prestige; Toll-access (or conventional) journals and publishers

evolution of, 49, 64

four functions of, 62

generally don’t pay authors, editors, or referees, 2–4, 9–10, 12, 17–18, 19, 20, 21, 25, 37, 38, 44, 64, 106–107, 111, 116, 130, 132, 142

journal articles as distinct from other genres, 2, 9–10, 12, 17, 21, 86, 106, 107, 111, 130, 132

origin of, 10, 102

Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, 193n5

Kaufman, Cara, 209n8

Kemp, Rebecca, 208–209n4

Kiley, Robert, xii

King, Donald, 213n18

Klusendorf, Heather, 181n2

Knowledge, 14, 41, 46, 112–113, 116. See also Research

growth of published, 41–43, 64

as nonrivalrous, 45–46, 48

as public good, 116, 143

research and, 43, 112–114 (see also Research)

Koprowski, Gene, 204n17

Kriegsman, Sue, xii

Kroes, Neelie, 180n12

Lancet, The (journal), 152

Lange, John, 13

Language barriers, 27

Lay readers, 25–26, 115–119, 203n16, 204n17, 204n20. See also Researchers

Lexis Nexis, 213n18

Libraries. See also Incentives; Open-access journals and publishers; Researchers; Toll-access (or conventional) journals and publishers; Universities

access and, 5, 30, 35, 40–41, 48, 119, 147, 155–157

bargaining power of, 32

big deals and bundling, 32–33, 145

boycotts and, 25

budgets of, 5, 29–35, 42, 43, 65, 145–147, 160, 181n2, 186n21

collections of, 52, 111

online vs. print books in, 111

permission barriers affecting, 34–35

price barriers affecting, 4–5, 35, 42

public libraries, 119

research and, 30–32, 35, 40–41, 141, 146, 157, 160

as stakeholders, x, 41

Libre OA, 65–75. See also Copyright; Creative Commons; Fair use; Gratis OA; Licenses; Public domain

advantages of, 5–6, 73–75

attainability of, 71–73, 90–91, 93–94

Creative Commons and, 68–70

definition of OA and, 8, 71

gold OA and, 53, 67

green OA and, 62, 67, 90–91, 93, 197–198n20

licenses and, 66–70, 74–75

mandates and, 72, 90–91, 93

neglect of, 50, 53, 62, 67, 72–73

permission and, 6, 8, 50, 53, 65–70, 73–75

Licenses, 67–70. See also Copyright; Creative Commons; Libre OA

“all rights reserved” and, 67–70, 72–73

copyright and, 4, 8, 67–70 (see also Copyright)

creating your own, 70

Creative Commons and, 68–70, 72–73

legal fees and, 143

libre OA and, 66, 69–70, 74–75

open, 23, 68–75, 165

Lindberg, Donald, 204n17

Lynch, Clifford, 205n25

Machines. See also Processing; Search and search engines; Text mining

access for, 115, 120–123, 205n25

machine-readable licenses, 70

Macquarie University, 193n5

Malmö University, 193n5

Mandates. See also Academic freedom; Copyright; Funding agencies; Green OA (OA through repositories); Misunderstandings; Policies; Terminology; Theses and dissertations; Unanimous faculty votes; Universities; Waivers

academic freedom and, 23, 55, 59, 63, 78–79, 83–84, 86, 91, 93 (see also Academic freedom)

contrasted with mere requests or encouragement, 78, 88

definition, 78, 85, 86–90 (see also Terminology)

deposit mandates, 79–82, 86–87, 149

at funding agencies, 54, 71, 72, 77–78, 80, 83–84, 89, 94, 126, 128, 129, 149–150, 155–157, 165, 172, 195nn9–11 (see also Funding agencies)

gratis and libre OA and, 90–91, 93

green OA and, 54, 58–59, 63, 78–79, 84, 90–91, 93, 150–156

Harvard-style, 80–82, 87–88, 149–150

historical timing and, 90–95

libraries and, 155–157

loophole mandates, 79–82, 87, 149, 155, 193n5

no gold OA mandates, 55, 78–79, 91–93, 192–193n4

not mandatory without qualification, 81, 84–87, 149–150

policies and, 54, 58–59, 63, 78–95, 149–157, 174

rights-retention mandates, 80–83, 87, 90, 93, 126–129, 149, 194n7

three basic types, 79–81

at universities, 79–90, 96, 149 (see also Universities)

Markets, 10, 12, 13, 38–39, 41, 44, 130, 184n14. See also Monopolies and anti-competitive practices

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 82, 181n2, 194n7

McAfee, Preston, 183n9, 184n15

McMillan, Gail, 199n4

McPherson, Isaac, 46

McPherson, James, 33, 138n10

McVeigh, Marie E., 187n2

Medknow, 159, 212n14, 216n10

Mendeley, 173, 218n7

Merck Company Foundation, 197–198n20

Metadata, 81–82, 110

Milloy, Caren, 200–201n8

Minho University, 194n8

Misunderstandings, x, 52, 54, 55, 56, 58, 71, 72, 88, 89, 99–100, 103, 111, 137–140, 163–168, 189n9, 192–193n4, 217n3

Mitchell, Anne, 208n4

Molecular Biology of the Cell (journal), 159

Monographs. See Books

Monopolies and anti-competitive practices, 32, 33, 38, 39–40, 130 (see also Markets)

Moral hazard, 41, 185n18

Morris, Chris, 208n4

Morris, Sally, 184n15

Morrison, Heather, 213n18

Morrison, James, 205n22

Movies and moviemakers, 8, 9, 12–13, 20

Music and musicians, 8, 9, 12–13, 20

Napier University, 195–196n12

National Academies Press, 109–110, 201n9

National Institutes of Health (NIH). See also Funding; Funding agencies; Mandates

copyright and, 126, 128

green OA and, 150, 152, 155, 157

OA (or “public access”) policy, 72, 80, 83–88, 126, 128, 150, 180n1, 188n4, 191n19, 195nn9–10, 197n19, 206n1, 206n3, 214n1, 215nn3–4, 216n7

National Library of Medicine, 117, 204n17

National Science Laboratory, China, 195–196n12

National University of Ireland, 208–209n4

Nature Publishing Group (NPG), 154–155, 216n6

Neston, Shannon, 194n7

Newspapers, 98. See also Journalism and journalists

Next Generation Learning Challenges, 197–198n20

Nonrivalrous property, 45–48

Novels and novelists, 9, 12–13, 17, 98, 130–131

Oberlin College, 194n7

Office of System wide Library Planning, 181n2

O’Leary, Brian, 200–201n8

Onsrud, Harlan, xii

Open access. See also Access; Gold OA (through journals); Gratis OA; Green OA (through repositories); Impact; Libre OA; Open-access journals and publishers

benefits, ix, 5–6, 15–16, 24, 26, 102, 114–115, 117–118, 122, 133, 137, 145, 178–179n6

definition, 4, 7–8

disciplinary differences and, 64, 97, 119, 137, 142, 144, 151–152, 209n7

economic benefit-cost ratios, 107–108, 133–134, 207–208n2

goal constructive, not destructive, 24

growth of, 8, 77, 144, 177–178n2

objections to, 37–38, 116, 117, 133, 139, 140, 144, 149–161

scope of, 9, 17, 97–124

as seizing opportunities, 20, 43–48

as solving problems, 29–43, 167

transition to, 8–9, 18, 62–63, 133, 140, 145–147, 149, 163–168

vehicles for, 6, 49, 67

what it is not, 20–27

Open Access Directory (OAD), 170, 188n4, 188n6, 195n10, 197n17, 200nn6–7, 206n2, 209n6, 214n19, 218n2, 218nn5–6, 218n8, 219–221

Open-access journals and publishers. See also Funding; Gold OA (through journals); Gratis OA; Impact; Journals; Libre OA; Peer review; Prestige; Publishing (in general); Repositories; Societies, scholarly; Sustainability; Toll-access (or conventional) journals and publishers

business models, 18–19, 37–38, 49, 53, 103, 110, 136–143, 170, 209n6

costs, 18, 21–22, 47, 53, 136, 142–144, 166

fee-based OA journals, 136, 138–142, 145–147, 170, 209–210n8, 210–211n11

for-profit, 18–19, 38, 50, 62, 142, 167, 212n14

libre OA, 50, 53, 60–62, 67, 72–73

newer than toll-access journals, 50, 170, 171, 187n3

no-fee OA journals, 136–137, 140, 142, 170, 171, 209–210n8

nonprofit, 50, 142, 212n14

quality, 19, 33, 39, 40, 49–50, 54, 100, 104, 105, 117–118, 139, 143, 144, 145, 160, 167, 169–170, 171, 185n17

submissions, 15, 91, 93, 145, 159, 170, 216–217n11

Open Access News (OAN), 221

Open Access Publishing in European Networks (OAPEN), 200n7

Open Access Scholarly Information Sourcebook (OASIS), 219

Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA), 69, 171, 191n18, 210n9, 218n3, 220

Open Access Tracking Project (OATP), 219

OpenAire, 173, 218n7

Open Archives Initiative (OAI), 56–57, 188n5, 218n7

Open data, xi, 35, 60, 63, 86, 98, 99, 173–174

OpenDepot, 173, 218n7

OpenDoar, 219

Open educational resources (OER) and open courseware (OCW), xi, 52, 99, 136

Open Journal Systems, 143, 212–213n15

Open review, 104

Open science, xi

Open Society Foundations, xi

Open-source and free software, xi, 60, 66–67, 98, 99, 143, 190n14, 212n15

Optical Society of America, 212n14

O’Reilly, Tim, 180n8, 200–201n8

Oriental Institute, 200–201n8

Oslo University, 189n9

Ostrom, Elinor, 178n3

Palfrey, John, xii

Parma, Ramesh C., 216n10

Patterson, L. Ray, 130–131, 207n5

Peek, Robin, 182n5, 219

Peer review, 8, 17–21, 25, 37, 44, 62, 98, 99–100, 103–104, 139, 142, 164–166, 170, 173. See also Editors; Misunderstandings; Open-access journals and publishers; Postprints; Referees; Toll-access (or conventional) journals and publishers

bypassing, 20–21, 58, 99, 100, 102, 163, 165–166

costs, 137, 139, 142–143, 145, 163, 170

decoupling from distribution, 64

editors and, 19–20, 25, 37, 44, 64, 103–104, 139–140, 170

generally carried out by unpaid volunteers, 7, 17–18, 19, 20, 25, 37, 142, 184n13

gold OA and, 59, 62, 72, 84, 100

green OA and, 59, 63, 64, 72, 102, 126, 171–174

open review, 104

postprints and, 99–104, 173

preprints and, 52, 98–104

referees and, 17–21, 25, 37, 44, 98, 103–104, 139, 142, 170, 173

reform of, 20, 102–104

rejection rates and, 40

repositories and, 51–53, 64, 171

revenue and, 17, 20–21, 38, 103, 137, 139–140, 167

scholarship and, 17

survival of, 62, 64, 147

Permission. See also Copyright; Creative Commons; Fair use; Libre OA; Licenses; Public domain

barriers as access barriers (see Access)

blanket permission for green OA, 54–56, 57, 59, 71, 84, 126, 172, 188n4

contracts and, 129

gratis and libre OA and, 6, 8, 50, 53, 60–62, 65–70, 71–75

green and gold OA and, 53, 57, 65, 100, 154–155, 172–174

policies and, 79–83, 90, 93

Physics, 57, 63–64, 146, 150–153, 156. See also ArXiv; CERN

Pitts, Lawrence H., 186n22

Plagiarism, 23–24

PLoS ONE, 212n14

Policies. See also Academic freedom; Copyright; Funding agencies; Green OA (OA through repositories); Mandates; Unanimous faculty votes; Universities; Waivers

funding and, 71, 77–80, 83–89, 94, 126, 128, 172–173, 192n2

gold OA and, 77–79, 83–84, 91–93, 134, 192–193n4

gratis OA and, 71–72

green OA and, 59, 77–79, 83–84, 93, 149, 161

historical timing and, 71–73, 90–95

libre OA and, 72, 90–91, 93

mandates and, 54, 58–59, 63, 78–95, 149–157, 174, 192n2, 192–193n4

permission and, 79–83, 84, 90, 93

repositories and, 77, 79–83, 86–87, 174

SHERPA and, 171

universities and, 4, 23, 59, 71–72, 77–87, 90, 128, 149–150, 172–173, 192n2

waivers and, 80–84, 87–94, 155

Postprints. See also Peer review; Preprints; Versions

gold OA and, 60, 100

green OA and, 60, 100, 173, 199n2

peer review and, 99–104, 173

Poynder, Richard, 178n3, 186n20, 189n10, 189–190n12, 200n5, 202–203n14

Preprints, 114. See also Ingelfinger rule; Peer review; Postprints; Versions

green OA and, 60, 63, 100, 173

peer review and, 20–21, 52, 98–104

Preservation, 6, 34, 52, 62, 63, 74, 102, 136, 167

Prestige, 16, 40, 50, 54–55, 60–61, 84, 167, 169–170, 171. See also Authors; Career-building for faculty; Impact; Journals (in general); Open-access journals and publishers; Toll-access (or conventional) journals and publishers

Prices. See Access; Toll-access (or conventional) journals and publishers

Print, 1, 18, 34, 35, 47, 108–111, 137, 144, 166, 167. See also Books; Digitization

print-era models, 18, 111, 144

print-on-demand (POD), 108

rivalrous, 47–48

Processing, 5–6, 44, 120–123. See also Machines; Search and search engines; Text mining

Promotion and tenure, 13, 60, 86, 130, 195–196n12. See also Career-building for faculty; Prestige; Universities

Public domain, 21, 69, 99, 111, 125, 190n17. See also Copyright; Libre OA

Public Knowledge, xi

Public Knowledge Project, 143

Public Library of Science, 142, 212n14

Publishers. See Open-access journals and publishers; Societies, scholarly; Toll-access (or conventional) journals and publishers

Publishers Association (PA), 207–208n2

Publishing (in general). See also Open-access journals and publishers; Toll-access (or conventional) journals and publishers

added value, 35, 142–143, 145

costs, 21–22, 119, 142–144

Publishing and the Ecology of European Research (PEER), 189n9, 215n4

Publishing Research Consortium (PRC), 134, 157–158

PubMed Central, 57, 188n7. See also Repositories

Queensland University of Technology, 193n6

Queen’s University, 192n3

Rausing, Lisbet, xii

Readers. See Lay readers; Researchers

Referees. See also Peer review

fee waivers and, 139, 170

generally not paid by journals, 17–18, 19, 20, 25, 37, 44, 142, 184n13

incentives for, 19

networks to find, 103

preprints and, 21, 98

standards and, 104

value adders, 37

Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR), 188n6, 192n2, 218n6, 219

Registry of Open Access Repository Material Archiving Policies (ROARMAP), 192n2, 193n4, 219

Repositories, 49, 52, 67, 111. See also ArXiv; Dark deposits; Green OA (OA through repositories); Open Archives Initiative (OAI); PubMed Central; Self-archiving

contents, variety of, 52, 134–136, 173–174

costs, 51, 53, 59, 62, 134, 136, 208–209n4

dark deposits and, 52, 81–82

disciplinary, 57, 173 (see also ArXiv; PubMed Central)

institutional, 57, 80, 86, 134–136, 173

interoperable, 56–57

peer review and, 51–53, 64, 171

policies and, 77, 79–83, 86–87, 174

purposes of, 134–135

unfamiliarity with, 52, 55, 58

universal repositories, 173

Research. See also Harm to research or researchers; Knowledge; Mandates; Policies; Processing; Researchers

grants and, 13–14, 23, 80–84, 88, 129, 150, 170

growth of published research, 41–43, 64

inquiry and truth-seeking, 10–12, 13, 14, 112–115, 120–121

libraries and, 30–32, 35, 40–41, 141, 146, 156–157, 160

policies and, 78–89, 93–95

public interests served by, ix, 14

as wider category than knowledge, 112–115

Research Councils UK, 155

Researchers. See also Authors; Harm to research or researchers; Lay readers

as authors, 2–4, 9–12, 15–17, 25, 77, 102

as readers, 15, 25, 40–41, 102, 119

unfamiliarity with OA, x, 40–41, 55, 58, 77

Research Information Network, 30, 134, 182n4, 184n13

Research Libraries UK, 134, 182n7

Revenue. See also Funding; Open-access journals and publishers; Royalties; Sustainability; Toll-access (or conventional) journals and publishers

academic freedom and, 10, 13, 14

access and, 38, 114–115

advertising and, 135–137

authors and, 1, 2–4, 5, 9–10, 12–13, 17, 21, 37, 38, 44, 64, 106–111, 116, 130, 132

books and, 106–112

consent to OA without loss of, 9–10, 17–18, 20–21, 44, 106, 107, 111

copyright and, 5, 44, 130, 132 (see also Copyright)

distribution and, 129, 142

hybrid journals and double-dipping and, 141, 211–212n13

limiting access and, 36

profits and, 10, 13–14, 19, 29, 32–33, 38, 40, 50, 62, 77, 118, 142–145, 160, 167

protection of, 125, 129–130

Reynolds, Larry, 203n16

Rights MEtadata for Open archiving database (RoMEO), 188n4, 219

Rivalrous property. See Nonrivalrous property

Roche, Ellen, 217n2

Rockefeller Foundations, 197–198n20

Rowse, Mark, 147

Royal Library, Sweden, 197–198n20

Royalties. See also Incentives; Revenue

academic salaries and, 12–14

audience size and, 15, 20, 130

books and, 106–108

copyright reform and, 132 (see also Copyright)

deprivation of, 12, 21–22

making a living and, 1–2, 12, 21, 106

moviemakers and, 12

musicians and, 12–13

novelists and, 12–13

risks to, 21, 108

royalty-free literature, 9–13, 17, 21, 106, 130, 132

royalty-producing literature, 12, 17, 106, 132

RSS feeds, 49

Sahu, D. K., 216n10

Sale, Arthur, 188n8

Sales. See Revenue

San Jose State University, 192n3

Scaling (with the growth of published knowledge), 41–43, 59, 64, 134, 186n20

Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC), xi

SPARC Europe Seal of Approval program, 69, 191nn18–20, 220

Scholars. See Researchers

Schroeder, Patricia, 152

Search and search engines, 35, 56, 57, 70, 82, 108, 120–122. See also Machines; Processing; Text mining

Select Committee on Science and Technology, 203n16

Self-archiving, 53, 105, 151, 154–155. See also Deposits; Green OA (OA through repositories); Repositories

Shao, Jufang, 178n4

Sheehan, Peter, 133, 207n2

Shen, Huiyun, 178n4

SHERPA database, 171, 188n4, 211n12, 218n4, 219

Shieber, Stuart, xii, 30, 87, 182n5, 196n14, 209n8

Shirky, Clay, 121, 205n24

Simons, Spencer, 208n4

Skurnik, David, xii

Social media, 100, 102–103, 104. See also Blogs; Wikis

Societies, scholarly. See also Open-access journals and publishers; Toll-access (or conventional) journals and publishers

society publishers, 33, 40, 50, 184–185n15

as stakeholders in OA, x, 136, 165

Software. See Machines; Open-source and free software; Processing; Search and search engines; Text mining

Sohn, Gigi, xii

Southampton University, 193n6, 194n8

Spina Bifida Association of America, 118

Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics (SCOAP3), 146–147, 189n11, 214n20. See also CERN

Springer, 160, 200–201n8

Stanford University School of Education, 194n7

Steele, Colin, 207n2

Stone, Graham, 196n16

Strathmore University, 194n7

Study of Open Access Publishing (SOAP), 209n7, 211n12

Suber, Peter, 177nn1–2, 178n3, 178n5, 180nn10–11, 180–181n1, 184n11, 184n14, 186nn19–20, 186–187n23, 187n1, 189–190nn10–12, 190n15, 191n19, 192n1, 193n4, 195n9, 195–196nn11–13, 197nn17–18, 199n1, 199n3, 200n5, 202nn11–12, 202–203nn14–15, 205nn21–23, 206n1, 206n3, 207n1, 209n5, 210n10, 211–212nn13–14, 214n20, 214n1, 217n1, 217–218n3

Subsidies, 38–39, 136–137, 144. See also Funding; Open-access journals and publishers; Toll-access (or conventional) journals and publishers

SURFShare, 189n9

Sustainability, 29, 30, 38, 43, 62, 64, 142, 145, 158, 158–159, 160. See also Open-access journals and publishers; Revenue; Toll-access (or conventional) journals and publishers

Swan, Alma, 89, 178n6, 192n4, 196n16, 207n2, 215n2, 219

Swedish Research Council, 195n9

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 192n3

Tagler, John, 211n12

Terminology, 6, 22, 53, 66, 70, 86–90, 138

“author fees” and “author pays,” 138

“BBB” definition of OA, 7

“conventional” journals and publishers, 6

“free,” 67

“gold OA,” 6, 53

“gratis OA,” 6, 65–67

“green OA,” 6, 53

“libre OA,” 6, 65–67

“mandates,” 78, 86–90, 196n13, 196n14

“open,” 67

“open access,” 9, 27, 66

“preprint” and “postprint,” 100–101

“self-archiving,” 53

“toll access,” 6

Text mining, 5, 74, 122. See also Machines; Processing; Search and search engines

Theses and dissertations, 16, 98–99, 104–106, 195n12, 199n4. See also Green OA (OA through repositories); Repositories; Universities

author rights and, 105

dark deposits and, 52

green OA and, 60, 63, 174

invisibility of, 104–106

mandates and, 86

quality, 104–106

repositories and, 52, 136, 174

self-archiving and, 105

Thomson Scientific, 50, 187n2

Toll-access (or conventional) journals and publishers, 6, 14, 18, 21, 24, 29, 32, 35, 37–38, 40, 50–54, 55, 62–63, 125, 129, 143–144, 151–152, 161, 169. See also Boycotts; Journals (in general); Libraries; Monopolies and anti-competitive practices; Open-access journals and publishers; Peer review; Prestige; Publishing (in general); Societies, scholarly; Sustainability

access and, 34, 37–38, 43, 119–122, 125

access barriers and, 14, 38, 48, 93

accommodate OA policies, 54, 55–56, 84, 91, 93, 94, 126, 128, 172–173, 188n4, 195n10, 197n19

adaptation to growth of OA, 18, 24, 35–37, 94, 95, 104, 140, 145–146, 147

author rights and, 5, 9, 23, 53, 105, 108, 110

author-side fees and, 9–10, 138–139

big deals and bundling, 32–33, 145, 182–183n7, 183n9

books, 108, 110

boycotts and, 24–25

business models, 24, 37–43, 48, 110, 126, 159–160

cancellations, 30, 32, 62–63, 64, 65, 147, 151, 152, 154–155, 157–158, 159–160, 186n19, 216n9

confidentiality or nondisclosure clauses, 33, 34

content protection measures and, 40, 119, 143

contracts and, 23, 33, 68, 83–88, 129, 172

conversion to OA, 15, 18, 19, 59, 62–63, 94, 104, 140, 144–147, 159–160, 213n18

copyright and, 5, 9, 34, 37, 39, 58–60, 125–132, 156

costs, 119, 142–144

deposit mandates and, 79–81, 87

disintermediation of, 19, 44

downloads, 152–154

experiments with OA, 18, 24, 100, 154

libraries and, 32, 34, 35, 40, 121, 147, 160

licensing agreements, 34–35

lobbying, 18, 25, 43, 72, 90, 116, 151–152, 156, 159

loophole mandates and, 79, 81–82

negotiation with, by authors, 60, 80, 105, 172–173

negotiation with, by libraries, 34–35, 143, 147

nonprofit, 33, 40, 50 (see also Societies, scholarly)

opposition to OA, x, 18, 58, 71–72, 105, 111

peer review and, 30, 59, 100, 117, 140, 144, 147, 156, 159

permission and, 53–54, 57, 90, 126

policies and, 79–84, 87–95

power to protect themselves from OA policies, 126–128, 149–150

prices and price increases, 25, 29–33, 39, 40, 41–42, 64, 158–159, 181n2, 182n5, 182–183n7, 184–185n15, 186n19, 186n21

profits, 29, 32, 40, 50, 143, 145, 160–161, 183n8

public subsidies and, 38–39

quality, 19, 32, 33, 39, 40–41, 49–50, 54, 56, 60, 61, 104, 117–118, 139, 184–185n15

rejection rates and, 40, 94

revenue and, 18–19, 32, 37–38, 40, 133, 141–147, 159

rights-retention mandates and, 80–83

risks and perceived risks from OA, 18, 24–25, 64–65, 149–161, 215n4

submissions, 15, 145, 151, 159

subscriptions and, 16–19, 29–35, 39–44, 59, 119, 140–147, 150–161

sustainability, 29, 43, 64, 142, 145, 158–160

usage, 32, 39

use of unpaid volunteers, 2–4, 9–10, 12, 17–18, 19, 20, 21, 25, 37, 38, 44, 64, 106–107, 111, 116, 130, 132, 142, 184n13

variety of positions on OA (not monolithic), 18

voluntary permission for green OA, 18, 54–56, 57, 59–60, 71, 84, 126, 154–155, 188n4

Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training (TAACCCT), 197–198n20

Trinity University, 194n7

UK Department of Health, 195n9

UK Medical Research Council, 195n9

UK PubMed Central (UKPMC), 197n20

Unanimous faculty votes, 72, 82, 89–90, 93, 191n19, 194n7, 197n17, 217n3. See also Mandates; Policies; Universities

Universal access, 26–27

Universities. See also Libraries; Mandates; Policies; Promotion and tenure; Repositories; Theses and dissertations; Unanimous faculty votes

libraries and, 32, 42, 111, 147, 174

mandates, 79–90, 96, 149 (see also Mandates)

paying publication fees, 136, 139, 145, 147, 170, 210–211n11, 214n19

policies, 4, 23, 59, 71–72, 77–87, 90, 94, 128, 129, 149–150, 172–173 (see also Policies)

public funding for public purpose of, 14, 38–39

salaries and, 12, 14, 17

as stakeholders in OA, x, 77–78

upstream from publishers, 129

usefulness or utility of research, ix, 5, 6, 40, 75, 102, 115, 121–123

University College London, 193n5

University of Athabasca, 192n3

University of Bielefeld, 192n3

University of Calgary, 210n11

University of California, 181n2, 186n22

University of Chicago, 200–201n8

University of Ghent, 193n5

University of Hawaii-Manoa, 194n7

University of Hong Kong, 194n6

University of Kansas, 194n7

University of Liège, 194n6, 195–196n12

University of Maine, xi

University of Memphis, 202n13

University of Minho, 193n6

University of Northern Colorado Libraries, 194n6

University of Oregon, 192n3, 194n7

University of Oregon Department of Romance Languages, 194n7, 195–196n12

University of Oregon Library Faculty, 194n7

University of Pretoria, 194n6

University of Puerto Rico Law School, 194n7

University of Salford, 194n6

University of Sassari, 192n3, 197–198n20

University of Strathclyde, 193n5

University of Tampere, 192n3

University of Utrecht, 192n3

University of Virginia, 192n3

University of Washington, 192n3

University of Westminster, 193n5

University of Zurich, 193n5

U.S. Congress, 72, 152, 187n24

U.S. Department of Education, 197–198n20

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 197–198n20

U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 197–198n20

U.S. Department of Labor, 197–198n20

U.S. Department of State, 197–198n20

U.S. Institute of Medicine, 197–198n20

Varmus, Harold, 187n24

Velterop, Jan, 41, 145, 185n18, 196n13, 213n17

Versions, 62, 74, 100–102, 155–156, 174, 199n2. See also Postprints; Preprints

Vézina, Kumiko, 196n16

V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, 193n5

Wagner, Ben, 178n6

Waivers, 23. See also Copyright; Mandates; Open-access journals and publishers; Policies

no waiver options in some funder mandates, 83–84, 87, 150, 155, 195n9

waiving provisions of OA policies or mandates, 23, 80–84, 87–94, 150, 155

waiving publication fees at fee-based OA journals, 136–137, 139, 170, 210n10

waiving rights under copyright law for libre OA, 68, 165

Wake Forest University Library Faculty, 194n7

Washington, H. A., 187n24

Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges (SBCTC), 197–198n20

Washington State University, 33

Weitzman, Jonathan B., 216n10

Wellcome Trust, xi, 80, 83, 85, 87, 134, 150, 195n9, 197–198n20. See also Funding; Funding agencies; Mandates

Wikipedia, 114, 164

Wikis, 49, 100, 114, 164, 190n14

Wiley, David, 200–201n8

Wiley Europe, 203n16

Willinsky, John, 212–213nn15–16

Wills, Alma, 209n8

Wright, Robert, 208n4

Yahoo, 56. See also Search and search engines

Yale University, 30, 205n23

Yale Law School Information Society Project, xi

York University, 192n3

Additional Information

ISBN
9780262301732
Related ISBN
9780262517638
MARC Record
OCLC
966925031
Pages
223-242
Launched on MUSE
2017-01-01
Language
English
Open Access
Yes
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