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207 Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Immunization and Therapeutic Procedures, 41 Affeldt, John, 7 African Americans and polio, 7, 9, 13. See also Harris County, Texas; race issues Aldrich, C. M., 79 Aldrich, Richard, 8 American Academy of Pediatrics, 27 American National Red Cross (ARC), 15, 16–­ 21, 36, 67–68, 123–­ 124, 132; NFIP rivalry, 126–­ 128, 139 Anderson, Gaylord W., 40–­ 42, 45, 47–­ 48, 116 antibodies, 2, 12, 15, 17, 21, 28, 29, 57, 101, 135; titer levels, 37–­ 38 Armstrong, Charles, 15 Armstrong, Louis, 10 Ashworth, J. Newton, 68–­ 70 Aufranc, W. H., 123 Bacon, Francis, 38 Becker, John, 74, 91, 95, 104, 108, 110 blood fractions, 14–­ 15, 17, 18 Bodian, David, 28, 38, 101 Burney, Leroy, 57 Burnett, Matthew and Rosemary, 104 Burnett, Patricia, 104 Bynum, Charles H., 107, 120 Byoir, Carl, 3 Carey, John A., 98 Carter, Richard, 118 Chappell, Frank, 103, 106–­ 107 Cheever, Francis S., 54, 79 clinical trials, 12, 58. See also double-­blind placebo-­ controlled trials; GG clinical trials ; vaccine trials and discovery Cockburn, W. Charles, 43–­ 44 Cohn, Edwin J., 15, 17, 20, 67–­ 68 Committee for the Celebration of the President ’s Birthday, 59 Communicable Disease Center, 47, 71, 123, 124 Conrad, Joseph, 23 Coriell, Lewis L., 54, 54f, 72, 74, 79–­ 80, 81f, 81, 115–­ 116, 117, 137 Cramer, Joseph, 120 Crippler, The, 10 Cummings, G. D., 129–­ 130 Cutlip, Scott M., 59 Davis, Elmer, 60 DeKleine, William, 18–­ 21 de Kruif, Paul, 10 Dingle, John H., 18 Dixon, Frank, 101 Dochez, Alphonse Raymond, 17–­ 18 double-­blind placebo-­controlled trials, 30–­ 31, 35, 39, 42, 58 Ducas, Dorothy, 59–­ 61, 65–­ 67, 100, 126–­ 127, 130, 134, 135–­ 136 Eisenhower, Dwight D., 123, 128 Eisenhower, Mamie, 128 Enders, John F., 24, 27–­ 28, 57–­ 58 Faber, Harold K., 41 Fisher, Ronald Aylmer, 30 Food and Drug Administration, 67–­ 68 Francis, Thomas, Jr., 18–­ 19, 21–­ 22, 26, 34–­ 35, 56, 100, 140–­ 141 gamma globulin (GG), 12, 15–­ 18, 27–­ 28, 32–­ 34, 36–­ 37, 101, 108–­ 109, 111, 141; gelatin vs., 68; post-­ trial demand, 122–­ 126, 127f, 129, 131, 141; USPHS report on, 133–­ 135; WHO report on, 133. See also GG clinical trials gender issues, 14, 24, 78, 79 GG clinical trials, 1, 12–­ 13, 129–­ 130, 140–­142; consensus-­building, 32–­52; during 1940s, 14, 16–­ 23, 26–­ 31, 32; ethical issues, 13, 29, 30, 35, 46, 63–­ 64; lollipop reward, 91, 119–­ 120, 130; marketing and public relations, 12, 36–­ 37, 39, 45, 53–­ 75, 76–­ 77, 80–­ 84, 93, 100, 102–­ 104, Index 208 Index GG clinical trials (continued) 108–­ 109, 111, 115–­ 119; media coverage, 76, 80–­ 84, 94, 103–­ 104, 107–­ 111, 118; parental consent form, 64, 65f, 82, 87, 116–­ 117, 140; pilot study preparations, 46–­ 52, 54–­ 75; pilot study trial (1951), 76–­ 97 (87f, 88f, 89f, 92f), 99; second trial (1952), 98–­ 115 (105f, 114f); secrecy, 21, 32, 50, 56, 61, 72; trial results, 115–­ 118, 133–­134, 136–­137. See also Hammon, William McDowell; national program Gibson, Sam T., 36, 68 Gill, D. G., 131 Gudakunst, Donald W., 16–­ 20, 22 Hammon, William McDowell: background, 23–­ 26; early interest in GG trials, 26–­ 31; initial proposals, 12, 32–­ 39, 42, 43–­ 46; photographs, 25f, 49f, 54f, 81f; pilot study preparations, 46–­ 52, 54–­ 58, 60–­ 65, 67–­ 75; pilot study trial, 76–­ 97; postcard questionnaire, 50–­ 52; post-­ trial activities , 123, 124, 133, 137–­ 138; Salk and, 33, 101, 138; second study trial, 98–­ 118, 121, 122; self-­ experimentation, 44, 81; shortcomings, 78, 142 Hammond, Kristine, 76, 82 Hammond, Roy B., 76, 77, 79, 80, 81f, 82, 84, 100 Harris County, Texas, 101–­ 110, 117–­ 118; map, 103f; segregation issues, 107–­ 108, 120 Hemphill, Fay M., 72, 101 hepatitis, 42–­ 44; GG and, 16, 27, 29, 33, 34, 50, 78, 95–­ 96, 99, 135, 141; postcard questionnaire , 50–­ 52 (51f), 95–­ 96; and serum, 117 Herlihy, Ed, 119 Hill, Austin Bradford, 30 Hilleboe, Herman E., 41, 48, 116 Hooper Foundation, 24–­ 26 Horstmann, Dorothy, 101 household contacts method (GG), 34, 124–­ 125, 128, 131, 132–­ 136 Howe, Howard, 37 Howitt, Beatrice F., 24 immunity, 2, 12, 28–­ 31, 37–38, 129 immunization, 12, 28, 29–­ 30, 34–­ 35, 41; active vs. passive, 12, 29, 101. See also household contacts method; national program Ipsen, Johannes, 129 iron lung respirators, 6, 8, 110, 121 James, Sharon, 90 Jaques, W. K., 64 Jex, James, 84, 90...

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Additional Information

ISBN
9780813574417
Related ISBN
9780813574394
MARC Record
OCLC
952070849
Pages
272
Launched on MUSE
2016-06-25
Language
English
Open Access
No
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