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Notes Introduction 1. Johns Hopkins Press, 1958. 2. Tsunoda Ryûsaku and L. Carrington Goodrich, Japan in the Chinese Dynastic Histories: Later Han through Ming Dynasties, Perkins, 1951; hereafter Tsunoda and Goodrich. 3. In 2003 the staff of the National Museum of Japanese History announced that with the aid of the more accurate AMS dating system they had arrived at much earlier dates for the Yayoi period, the period characterized by the growing of rice.This study was also being done by the three east Asian countries involved with prehistoric and early historic archaeology.The period could be dated, they said, some five hundred years earlier , the beginning of undecorated (mumon) pottery in Korea would be pushed back two hundred years, and the first signs of rice in south Korea back three hundred years. They proposed four stages: Earliest (950–780 BC), Early (780–380 BC), Middle (380–0 [sic] BC), Late (AD 0–c. 250), following this up by saying the traditional concept of cultural lag, such as is applied to similar types of pottery or the appearance of mirrors in Japanese tombs, would not exist.The Jòmon period ends much earlier in Kyushu than now dated. See GBHSJ 2004, 2:41 and also Nishida 2003 in evaluating the AMS system .The radical nature of this elicited substantial disagreement; see Hashiguchi (2003), who argues that it is not possible to coordinate Chinese artifacts with their time of manufacture and their arrival in Japan. When I use the terms Early, Middle, and Late I am following the conventional dates of roughly 300 BC to about AD 250, Middle being the first century BC and the first century AD. 4. I recall the shock waves when a fairly prominent writer in Japan said Prince Shòtoku was not a Japanese (Nihon-jin). He was a Wa-jin (or Wa-bito) since no one in “Japan” was “Japanese” until the late seventh century at best. Chapter 1 • Ancient Texts and Sources 1. Tsunoda and Goodrich, 3n1, 16n1; Farris 1998:10–11; Yasumoto 1989:46. 2. Tsunoda and Goodrich, 22–26, 28–36, 38–47. 3. Farris 1998:10–11. For more details on relevant Chinese texts see Young, 25–34. 4. The endless arguments over the orders to prepare these books, the initial dates of the projects, the materials from which they were drawn, the audience to whom they were addressed, and other questions, except their content, can be conveniently read in Sakamoto 1991:30–51. For detailed examination of the Nihon shoki itself, there are several studies of increasing monumentality. The best pre–World War II analysis is the twenty volumes by Matsuoka, Kiki ronkyû, but postwar studies deal with the problems more objectively. See the following:Nakamura S.,Nihon shoki no sekai; Sakamoto,Ienaga,Inoue,and Òno,Nihon shoki (2 vols.);and Mishina,Yokota,and others,eds.,Nihon shoki kenkyû (21 vols.).My interest in it is not as an ancient document but, where possible, in the applicability of its content to the time frame of this study; therefore I prefer Ujitani (Nihon shoki, 2 vols.), who is nonspeculative and states simply what is known about individuals and place names. 5. Seeley 2000:41–46. 6. Aston, 2:350ff.; Miller 1974:13. 7. Chamberlain, 3; Philippi, 37. 285 8. Tsugita, 1:31–32; Sakamoto 1991:33–34. 9. By sheer accident Ò Yasumaro’s cremation grave was found in 1979 among tea bushes in the hills 12 km east of the Nara city train station, quite some distance from the spot traditionally claimed for it.The bronze epitaph plate notes his name,address,rank,death on the 6th day of the 7th month, 723, and burial on the 15th day of the 12th month in the same year.The Shoku nihongi records his death a day later, perhaps due to reporting lag time. 10. Interpretations abound without consensus over every word and phrase of these early stories .Izanami,the female procreator,may have been removed from the scene to make way for a one and only chief goddess, as there should be no competition at the top of the pyramid.The tempestuous relationship between the Sun Goddess and Susano-o is unmistakably the Yamato view of the Yamato-Izumo tribal rivalry,in its simplest symbolic form, good versus evil. Described initially as polar opposites, they are the eternal female-male struggle, or the tension between the deities of heaven and the deities of earth. But some move in the direction...