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239 Early in his reign Emperor Sujin is said to have taken up residence in a palace called Mizugaki in Shiki.This is today’s Kanaya in Sakurai city in Nara prefecture, an area southwest of Mt. Miwa. Hikers would know Kanaya as the first little community the Yamanobe hiking course goes through when the route is entered from the south, at the Sakurai end. The tomb attributed to Sujin, formally called Yamanobe-no-michi-magarino -oka-no-ue-ryò, seems to be the first imperial tomb of keyhole shape and is moated. Still a hillside construction, facing west-northwest, the moat is unique in being on two levels. Moats are not customary in China and Korea, but many large tombs in Osaka and Nara prefectures and a small number elsewhere have them. In general terms, moats accompanying large mounds are regarded as a mark of royalty , but some moated tombs have never had an imperial identity and so were never brought under the umbrella of the Imperial Household Agency.This lacuna, however , by no means eliminates them from actually having imperial connections. A few tombs were selected as “imperial” because of sheer size, an example being Mise-maruyama in Asuka.At 310 m in length, it is called the sixth-largest tomb in Japan. It may well be an imperial tomb, probably that of Emperor Kimmei who died in 571, but the Imperial Household Agency has him buried in a smaller, moated mound about 800 m to the south.The Fujinoki Tomb near the Hòryû-ji was probably the burial place of Emperor Sushun, but was never designated. Emperor Suinin lived in what is called the Tamagaki palace in Makimuku.1 The area name is still in use today. Makimuku is the first train stop some 2 km north of Miwa on the JR Sakurai Line. The palace was probably in the neighborhood of Anashi, Òmiwa-chò, Shiki county, about 1 km due east of the station . Two km to the east is Mt. Makimuku, (elevation 567 m). The deity itself, known as Miwa Myòjin, is Mt. Miwa (elevation 467 m).The Makimuku River flows out of the eastern hills into the Yamato River on the northern boundary of the area.The misasagi for Suinin has been recognized as the 220 m long keyhole -shaped and moated tomb known officially as Sugahara-fushimi-ryò on level ground at Amagatsuji, facing south-southeast, 200 m west of the first train stop south from Saidaiji on the Kinki Kashihara Line. It has been widely accepted as an accurate identification. CHAPTER 12 Makimuku and the Location of Yamatai Fig. 12.1 Distribution of tombs on the southeast side of the Nara Basin between Tenri and Sakurai (adapted from Izumori, Yamato no kofun 1, pl. 2, 12, 51; Date, Yamato Asuka kòkogaku sampo, 19, 35, 49) Emperor Keikò lived in the palace called Hishiro at Makimuku in Òmiwa-chò. Each ruler had been moving closer to the center of the Miwa cult,but for some reason , probably over religious differences or perhaps even the influence of a wife, Keikò changed his residence to Òmi (Shiga) and stayed in a palace called Takaanaho for some three years before he died.This place should be in the area known as Anou in Òtsu, toward the north end of the city.The Nihon shoki has him being buried in the misasagi above the Yamanobe road in Yamato. The large keyholeshaped mound located at an address given as Mukoyama, Shibuya-chò,Tenri city, called variously Yamanobe-no-michi-no-ue-ryò,is believed to be his.It faces a fraction west of west-southwest. If this identification is true, his remains were sent back after mogari to be interred just north of his first palace, meaning that his tomb had been started well before he moved to the shore of Lake Biwa. Since Emperor Seimu is said to have followed suit and lived at Shiga palace in Afumi (Òmi), probably Shiga-chò in Shiga prefecture, the schism with the Miwa cult appears to be final, but Seimu looks more like an alternate choice and an interim ruler. He may well have been a fictionalized time filler, but the actual content of his reign, brief though it is, is as solid as the others. In any event, his immediate line died out.The Nihon shoki does not say where Chûai lived at first, but the Kojiki puts him in Toyura, Anato (Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi prefecture...


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