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vii FIGURES 2.1 Wei zhi text 11 2.2 Schematic plan of directions and distances to Yamatai from Daifang, and number of households 13 2.3 Tattooing on Yayoi and Kofun haniwa faces 14 3.1 Map showing the Japanese islands lying parallel to the China coast 28 4.1 Pictures of boats, Yayoi period 43 4.2 Models and picture of boats, Kofun period 44 5.1 East Asia in the third century AD 55 6.1 Population densities: Latest Jòmon period and Yayoi period 61 6.2 Major Yayoi sites, round and keyhole tombs of the Kofun period in north Kyushu 62 6.3 Representative Yayoi-period skulls from regional sites 64 6.4 Yayoi cemetery, Doigahama,Toyokita-machi, Yamaguchi 65 6.5 The moated Hiratsuka-kawazoe site,Amagi city, Fukuoka 73 6.6 Òtsuka component of Santonodai site, Yokohama city, Kanagawa 75 6.7 Yayoi-period buildings 77 6.8 Kofun-period buildings 79 6.9 Yayoi-period burials 93 6.10 Four-cornered mounded grave, Miyayama Tomb, Yasugi city, Shimane 104 6.11 Ritual objects of steatite, Early Kofun period 109 7.1 Yayoi-period sites in the Nara Basin and northern foothills 120 7.2 Areas of distribution of bronze weapons and bells 125 8.1 Shamans illustrated on ceramic vessels 128 8.2 Haniwa koto players 134 8.3 Middle Yayoi bronze bells with pictorial decoration 145 8.4 Oracle bones and carapace 154 8.5 Distribution of oracle bones from the Yayoi period through the Heian 155 9.1 Triangular-rim-deities-animals mirror no. M34,Tsubai-òtsukayama Tomb, Yamashiro-chò, Kyoto 161 9.2 Ground plans of early tombs; burial chamber of Kurozuka Tomb 167 9.3 Location of tombs yielding mirrors dated 235–244, the so-called Himiko mirrors 173 Illustrations and Tables 9.4 Four dated mirrors 176 9.5 Mirrors matched with mirrors retrieved from the Tsubai-òtsukayama Tomb, Kyoto, forming the basis for the Kobayashi thesis 181 10.1 Incised monster/serpent figures on pottery sherds 200 10.2 Wooden models of flying birds as grave markers with holes for supporting poles 219 12.1 Distribution of tombs on the southeast side of the Nara Basin between Tenri and Sakurai 240 12.2 Large clay stands for libation pots (tokushu-kidai) 246 12.3 Ground plans of Makimuku tombs 250 12.4 Aerial view of Chausuyama Tomb, Sakurai city, and Hashihaka Tomb, Sakurai city 252 12.5 Makimuku area, west of Mt. Miwa, with ritual sites outlined 255 12.6 Mt. Miwa; sacred stones (iwakura) alongside road in front of haiden, Òmiwa Shrine 257 12.7 Wooden objects with incised patterns from Makimuku sites 260 12.8 Probable route from Daifang to Yamatai 279 TABLES 1 Wei zhi distances 38 2 Population statistics from Middle Jòmon to Yayoi 60 3 Immigrant to native ratios in dentition differences by period and region 67 4 Rulers 10–43 102 5 Tombs in Nara prefecture containing more than ten mirrors 110 6 Number of other mirrors/triangular-rim mirrors by region and prefecture 163 7 Comparative decoration on the triangular-rim mirrors from the Tsubai-òtsukayama and Kurozuka tombs 168 8 Mirrors dated to Himiko’s hegemony 172 9 Rulers from Sujin to Suiko 188 10 Identified locations of Yamatai (pre–World War II) 232 11 Identified locations of Yamatai (post–World War II) 233 12 Model for identifying relationships between tombs in Nara and Osaka prefectures 248 13 Makimuku tombs 249 14 Titles of officials of major chiefdoms under Yamatai in the Wei zhi 277 15 Kamo-iwakura bells matched with bells found elsewhere 320 16 Evaluation by Mori Kòichi (1965) of designations of imperial tombs 334 viii ILLUSTRATIONS AND TABLES ...


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