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ACCOMMODATIONIST ALLIANCE. An alliance between middle-sector polit­ ical leadership and more traditional, agrarian elites. This term is used in ana­ lyzing the incorporation and aftermath periods and is contrasted with the co­ alitional alternative of a populist alliance. AFTERMATH. The period immediately following initial incorporation. Within the framework in which the incorporation period is viewed as a critical junc­ ture, the aftermath is the first phase of the legacy of incorporation. See also heritage. ANTECEDENT POLITICAL SYSTEM. In the discussion of critical junctures, this is the prior political period that is the "base line" against which the (pre­ sumably different) legacy of the critical juncture is compared. BOURGEOISIE. Owners and high-level managers of enterprises in the urban commercial, financial, and industrial sector, as well as in the modern enclave sector. The relation between the terms bourgeoisie and oligarchy is discussed under oligarchy below. CENTER, POLITICAL. A middle position between fundamental political alter­ natives. This may involve a middle position with reference to a left-right ideo­ logical spectrum, to alternative choices about political regimes, or to other ba­ sic political issues. The "center" is a relative term that must be understood in relation to the spectrum of alternatives within a given national context. Very crucially, during the aftermath period in the cases of party incorporation, the center represents a compromise between the often-radical reforms of the incor­ poration period and the policies of the conservative reaction to incorporation. COMPETITIVE REGIME. Applied to civilian regimes under which there is at least substantial electoral competition, although they may not be fully demo­ cratic. This term covers a range of cases from post- 1 958 Venezuela to pre- 1973 Chile. See also democratic regime and semicompetitive regime. CONSTRAINTS. See corporatism. CORPORATISM. A pattern of relationships between the state and interest groups based on state structuring of representation that produces a system of officially sanctioned, noncompetitive, compulsory interest associations; state subsidy of these associations; and state imposed constraints on leader­ ship, demand-making, and internal governance. In this book, the discussion of corporatism focuses specifically on unions. Structuring and subsidy together constitute inducements. While both inducements and constraints are viewed as instruments of control, inducements are double edged as they bestow cer­ tain advantages. Crucial periods in the evolution of state-labor are viewed in terms of a strategic interaction involving the varied application and conse­ quences of inducements and constraints in the context of the dual dilemma. While the Latin American cases considered here predominantly involve variGlossary 782 S H A P I N G T H E P O L I T I C A L A R E N A ants of "state corporatism," this definition could also be applied in contexts of societal corporatism (see Chapter 2), in which case the constraints would be limited, and state structuring and subsidy would in important measure serve to ratify patterns of interest politics that had initially been forged outside the state (Collier and Collier 1979:978-79). CRITICAL JUNCTURE. A period of significant change, which typically occurs in distinct ways in different countries (or in other units of analysis), and which is hypothesized to produce distinct legacies. Criteria for identifying a critical juncture are discussed in Chapter 1 . DEMOCRATIC REGIME. Used in the sense of Dahl's term "polyarchy," which he defines as a regime that allows extensive political participation and is broadly open to public contestation ( 1971 : 7-8). Our usage is thus restricted to political democracy. Questions of economic and social democracy are dis­ cussed in terms of such themes and labels as equity and welfare. See also com­ petitive regime and semicompetitive regime. DUAL DILEMMA. The choices on the part of both the state and labor about the type of state-labor relations to pursue. Each alternative presents both advan­ tages and pitfalls. On the side of the state, this choice is between the option of controlling the labor movement and seeking to mobilize labor support; on the side of the labor movement it is between cooperating with the state and resist­ ing such cooperation in order to maintain greater autonomy, as well as the choice between entering or abstaining from the sphere of partisan politics. ELITE. Relatively small groups or strata that exert great influence, authority, and power of decision. We refer to owners and managers of large enterprises as the "economic elite," and to the leaders of the initial incorporation period as the "incorporating elite." We also refer to the "state elite," in the...


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