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7 Heritage : Between Hegemony and Crisis THE INCORPORATION PERIOD and its aftermath helped shape the type of polit­ ical coalitions that crystallized in the eight countries and the way these co­ alitions were institutionalized in different party systems. These outcomes in turn influenced the forms of regimes that would emerge, their internal dy­ namics, and the evolution of national politics in the following years. This chapter analyzes these outcomes as the heritage of incorporation. The analysis proceeds in two parts. The first presents an overall assess­ ment of the party system, and the second sets this party system in motion by exploring its dynamics when confronted by the period of new opposition movements and political crisis faced by countries throughout Latin America from the late 1 950s to the 1970s. We argue that the varying scope of this opposition and crisis in each country can be explained in part by character­ istics of the party system and its political or hegemonic resources. Some countries experienced severe polarization, whereas in others the polarization was more mild and to one degree or another was effectively contained by established political actors. In this part of the analysis we explore both the economic challenges reflected in the politics of stabilization policy and the political challenges that derived from the emergence of new opposition movements in the party arena and in labor and peasant organizations. In some countries the polarization and crisis culminated in military coups, followed by extended periods of military rule, whereas elsewhere the civilian regimes had a greater capacity to deal with these conflicts. We argue that each country's prior experience in the incorporation and aftermath periods played an important role in shaping these alternative outcomes-though the explanatory power of this earlier experience must be looked at in a context in which many other causal factors also had an impact. It is important to recognize the considerable overlap between the after­ math and heritage periods. Some traits we identify as features of the heritage were direct outcomes of the incorporation experience and hence can be ob­ served during the aftermath period as soon as the incorporation experience was over. By contrast, other features of the heritage emerged only later, in the course of the aftermath. Given this dual genesis of heritage traits, in the sections that follow we will at various points have occasion to consider some of the same chronological periods we analyzed in the last chapter, but now from a somewhat different point of view. For most of the countries, however, the emphasis will be on the post-aftermath period, when all the traits of the heritage were in place. The interval discussed in this chapter therefore begins with the civilian regimes of the aftermath period. That is, for the cases of party incorporation, H E R I TA G E : I N T R O D U C T I O N 499 we treat the heritage period as beginning immediately following the restora­ tion of civilian rule, where it had been suspended.1 For the cases of state incorporation, it begins with the restoration of a competitive regime within a year of the end of the incorporation period. With regard to the end of the heritage period, we view the problem of iden­ tifying its erosion or termination as a complex issue, which we address in an exploratory manner in the final chapter. For five of the countries, within the present chapter, we extend the discussion up to the date of the military coup of the 1 960s or 1970s that brought an abrupt end to the civilian regime and the existing party system. The earliest of these coups occurred in Brazil in 1 964, the latest in Chile in 1973. These coups are seen not only as the end­ point of our study, but also as an outcome of the political dynamics that we attribute ultimately to the type of incorporation. In other countries, where no coup interrupted the political patterns we describe as the heritage of in­ corporation, the analysis is carried to the conclusion of the presidential term ending roughly around 1980. We thus focus on the following intervals (see Figure 7. 1 ): in Brazil, from 1946 to the coup of 1964; in Chile, from 1 932 to the coup of 1 973; in Mexico, from 1 940 to 1 982 (the end of the Lopez Portillo presidency); in Venezuela, from 1 958 to 1 978 (the end of the first Carlos Andres...


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