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6 Aftermath: Reaction to Incorporation and Postincorporation Dynamics IN A L L EIGHT COUNTRIES, the incorporation periods produced strong political reactions, and in most cases the regimes under which incorporation had been inaugurated eventually broke down in the face of rising opposition. This chapter analyzes the aftermath of incorporation, focusing on this regime change and the reshaping of state-union-party relations that accompanied and followed it. The two broad types of incorporation periods-state and party incorpora­ tion-triggered distinct political reactions. In Brazil and Chile, state incor­ poration had been antidemocratic and antimobilizational. It had been carried out under authoritarian regimes, and this authoritarianism generated sub­ stantial opposition that culminated in the restoration of competitive, elec­ toral regimes. Under these new regimes, the question of the political role of the working class, postponed rather than answered in the incorporation pe­ riod, had to be addressed anew. The repoliticization of the working class, and of the parties and other channels through which labor would participate in the new competitive regime, emerged as major political issues. The countries that experienced party incorporation followed a contrasting pattern. Party incorporation had been reformist and mobilizational and had occurred under regimes that were in most cases more democratic.1 The op­ position movements that emerged were conservative and oriented toward po­ litical demobilization. In Argentina, Peru, and Venezuela, the incorporation period was brought to an end by a military coup that ousted the reformist governments and inaugurated a period of counterreformist military rule. In Uruguay and Colombia, the incorporation period ended with a relatively mild conservative reaction under the existing civilian regime, followed later by a coup that pushed the conservative reaction even further. In Mexico alone the incorporating party managed to stay in power, and under its own leadership the reformism of the incorporation period was brought to a halt. In sum, except for Mexico, the aftermath of party incorporation can be traced out in two steps: ( 1 ) a conservative reaction in which the party or leadership that led the incorporation period fell from power and (2) an initial 1 As we saw in Chapter 5, in Mexico, Uruguay, and Colombia, the incorporation periods occurred under more-or-less competitive regimes. In Argentina, Venezuela, and Peru, the incorporation periods were initiated under authoritarian regimes or regimes whose elec­ toral credentials were dubious. Yet the leaders of these incorporation projects later consol­ idated their power in relatively free elections. Among these latter three cases, only in Ar­ gentina did the regime subsequently become authoritarian during the incorporation period. 354 S H A P I N G T H E P O L I T I C A L A R E N A period of a restored, competitive regime, during which a number of measures were initiated to ensure that the polarization of the incorporation period would not recur. Though in Mexico the incorporating party remained in power, that country experienced the same political changes as the other countries in this last period. The analysis of the aftermath period covers the following years (see Figure 6. 1 ) : in Brazil, from the fall of Vargas in 1945 to 1960; in Chile, from the fall of Ibanez in 1 93 1 to 1952; in Mexico, from 1940 to 1952, a period which saw a self-transformation of the governing party in a conservative direction; in Venezuela, from the 1 948 coup, through the restoration of a competitive re­ gime in 1 958, to the early 1960s; in Uruguay, from the halt in the reform effort in 1916, through the coup of 1933, through the restoration of a com­ petitive regime in 1942, to the mid- 1940s; in Colombia, from the resignation of Lopez in 1 945, through the coup of 1953 and the restoration of a semi­ competitive, civilian regime in 1 958, to roughly 1 960; in Peru, from the 1 948 coup, through the restoration of a semicompetitive regime in 1 956, to roughly 1960; and in Argentina, from the coup of 1955, through the restora­ tion of a semicompetitive regime in 1958, to roughly 1 960. Aftermath of State Incorporation For the cases of state incorporation, the analysis begins with this restoration of competitive regimes in 1945 in Brazil and 193 1 in Chile. In these cases, a crucial item of "unfinished business" from the earlier incorporation period Figure 6. 1 Chronological Overview of Aftermath Periods 1910 1920 BRA CHI MEX VEN URU COL PER ARG 1910 1920 1930 1940 c R...


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