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229 Notes | PREFACE: “BALTIMORE CITY, YOU’RE BREAKING MY HEART” 1. Ta-­ Nehisi Coates, “The Case for Reparations,” The Atlantic, June 2014; Luke Broadwater, “Wells Fargo Agrees to Pay $175M Settlement in Pricing Discrimination Suit,” Baltimore Sun, July 12, 2012; Pietila 2010. 2. Ian Tuttle, “Lack of ‘Investment’ Is Not the Problem in Baltimore,” National Review, April 29, 2015; Michael Tanner, “Poverty, Despair, and Big Government ,” National Review, April 29, 2015; Tierney Sneed, “Conservatives Make Baltimore Riots a Case for Welfare Reform,” U.S. News & World Report, May 1, 2015. 3. David Brooks, “The Nature of Poverty,” New York Times, May 1, 2015. 4. David Brooks, “The Cost of Relativism,” New York Times, March 10, 2015. 5. Tracey Halvorsen, “Baltimore City, You’re Breaking My Heart” (This Is Why People Leave),” February 7, 2014, retrieved from: /1873a505ce2a (accessed December 7, 2015). 6. Tim Barnett, “Baltimore City, You’re Not Breaking My Heart (I’m Not Leaving ),” 2014, retrieved from: more-city-youre-not-breaking-my-heart-3e8ac15cf037 (accessed December 7, 2015). 7. Halvorsen, “Baltimore City, You’re Breaking My Heart.” 8. Chetty et al. 2014. 9. “Port of Baltimore Sets Container Record in August,” Baltimore Sun, October 15, 2015. 10. Sheryl Gay Stolberg, “Fragile Baltimore Struggles to Heal After Deadly Police Encounter,” New York Times, October 20, 2015. 11. Harrington 1962. Two recent examples of Harrington’s legacy include Sasha Abramsky’s (2013) The American Way of Poverty: How the Other Half Still Lives and Kathryn Edin and Luke Schaefer’s (2015) $2 a Day: Living on Almost Nothing in America. 230      Notes ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 1. Russell Sage #9500861. 2. William T. Grant Foundation Major Grant #553399. 3. William T. Grant Foundation Faculty Scholars Award #9031. 4. Spencer Foundation #2009000042; Century Foundation Non-­ Resident Fellows Program 2011–2014. CHAPTER 1: “DIFFERENT PRIVILEGES THAT DIFFERENT PEOPLE INHERIT”: SOCIAL REPRODUCTION AND THE TRANSITION TO ADULTHOOD 1. Corak 2013. 2. Pew Charitable Trusts 2012; Reeves 2013. 3. Alexander, Entwisle, and Olson 2014. 4. J. Rosen 2014. 5. Alexander, Entwisle, and Olson 2014. 6. Coates, “The Case for Reparations”; Sampson 2012; Sharkey 2013. 7. Another 5 percent of parents obtained a GED. 8. A third group received vouchers that did not come with a stipulation that they live in any particular kind of neighborhood. We interviewed parents and youth in this group in 2003–2004 but not in 2010. 9. See Coates (2015) for his description of navigating his way through West Baltimore ; see also Harding 2010. 10. Erikson 1963. More recently, Tim Clydesdale (2015) has argued that finding a “vocation” can motivate college students to persevere and help them navigate their early career choices more purposefully. 11. The names of all youth, parents, teachers, and siblings have been changed to preserve confidentiality, as have elementary, middle, and high schools. All places of employment have been changed in the specific, but kept within employment sector to preserve context. For example, if a youth worked at McDonald ’s, we have changed it to another fast food place such as Wendy’s. In all but a few cases (those requested by HUD to ensure confidentiality), names of neighborhoods reflect where youth lived. 12. Arnett 2004. 13. See MacLeod 1987 for another example of disadvantaged youth falling short of their aspirations. 14. Hoxby and Avery 2013. 15. Becker 1991. 16. Mayer 1997. Notes      231 17. Reardon 2011; Duncan and Murnane 2011; Kaushal, Magnuson, and Waldfogel 2011; Magnuson and Waldfogel 2008. 18. Reardon and Yun 2001; Reardon et al. 2011; Mickelson and Nkomo 2012; Warkentien 2015; Hanushek, Kain and Rivkin 2009 19. Wilson 1987, 1996, 2009. See also Mayer and Jencks 1989 and Sampson, Morenoff , and Gannon-­ Rowley 2002. 20. Chetty et al. 2014; Chetty, Hendren, and Katz 2015. 21. Wilson 1987. 22. Bourdieu 1977; Bourdieu and Passeron 1977. 23. Bernstein 1975. Shirley Brice-­ Heath (1983) also draws on intensive fieldwork to demonstrate that linguistic cultural capital differs greatly between black and white students, and between rural students and those raised in town. 24. Willis 1977. 25. Lareau 2003. 26. Prudence Carter (2003) distinguishes between dominant and nondominant cultural capital in her study of adolescents. Dominant cultural capital aligns with mainstream middle-­ class language patterns, clothing, and other interests. 27. In many ways, our findings are most closely aligned with those of Jay Mac­ Leod, whose 1987 ethnographic work presents a challenge to deterministic and cultural views. MacLeod followed two groups of low-income youth that shared the same social location...


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