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Acknowledgments Writing a book about prehispanic political formations and political economy in the Philippines is a very difficult task. The archipelago is diverse in terms of ecology, language, culture, the scale and complexity of sociopolitical units, and historic trajectories. There is a rich archaeological record of the development of complex societies over the last three millennia (despite the absence of visible monumental architecture and the vagaries of material preservation), but archaeological investigations by both local scholars and foreigner researchers have been impeded by difficult field conditions and limits on funding. I am therefore particularly grateful for a long association with a fine group of Filipino and American researchers who have contributed to my archaeological field projects and who have added tremendously to my growth as a scholar. My archaeological field work in the Bais-Tanjay Region over more than a decade was supported by grants and fellowships from a number of institutions and agencies, including the Social Science Research Council, the Fulbright Commission, the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, the Horace B. Rackham Fellowship Fund at the University of Michigan, the National Geographic Society, the Mellon Foundation, and the University Research Council at Vanderbilt University. The generous funding from these institutions allowed me to trace the prehistoric and historic development of chiefdoms in one region of the Philippines in unprecedented depth. Most important, this financial support allowed me to collaborate with wonderful Philippine colleagues and to help train Philippine students in archaeological method and theory. I owe a special debt of gratitude to archaeologists and ethnographers at the National Museum of the Philippines, who have been unfailingly generous in facilitating my archaeological research projects, sharing their ideas about the Philippine past, and providing technical assistance and field personnel. I am especially grateful for the constant support and friendship of Jesus Peralta, Wilfredo Ronquillo, Eusebio Dizon, Amalia de la Torre, Angel Bautista , Sandy Salcedo, and others in the Archaeology and Ethnography divisions . Rolando Mascunana, Joy Gerra, Amalia de la Torre, and other current and former archaeology faculty at Silliman University (Dumaguete, Negros Oriental) and the University of San Carlos (Cebu City, Cebu) have contributed immeasurably to my field projects by working with me in the viii Acknowledgments field when they were not teaching, securing local lab space, and providing me with their students as field interns. The undergraduate and graduate students who have worked on various phases of my archaeological field projects are too numerous to mention, but some of the multiyear veterans who contributed greatly to my research include Mary Gunn (formerly of the University of Hawai‘i), Lis Bacus (formerly of the University of Michigan), Mary Joy Santos (formerly of Silliman University), and Joven Mirasol (formerly of Silliman University). This book owes much to the influence of Karl Hutterer and Bill Macdonald, who first educated me in Southeast Asian archaeology, included me as a student in their archaeological projects, and allowed me to build on their pioneering work on settlement archaeology in the Philippines. A number of yet-unmentioned Philippine specialists who have shared their ideas on various aspects of Philippine prehistory and ethnoarchaeology over many years, and who have contributed at least indirectly to this work, include Karen Mudar, Binky Dalupan, Masao Nishimura, Bill Longacre, Michael Graves, Miriam Stark, Bion Griffin, and Bill Solheim. My historical analysis of Philippine chiefdoms owes much to the guidance and generous wisdom of the late William Henry Scott, who encouraged me to become an ethnohistorian as well as an archaeologist. His voluminous personal correspondence , following a careful reading of my historically based arguments, always “set me right” in a gentle manner if I misinterpreted a text or its specific historical context. As I created this book, pulling together the archaeological and ethnohistorical evidence from the Philippines and attempting to contribute to broader anthropological theory on how chiefdoms are structured and evolve, I was fortunate to have the input of many colleagues. Special thanks go to Karl Hutterer, Michael Graves, Henry Wright, Timothy Earle, Joyce Marcus, Sander van der Leeuw, and several anonymous reviewers who undertook the tedious task of reading and commenting on the entire manuscript (and sometimes several revisions!). I appreciated their detailed and often brutally honest criticisms and suggestions. Any remaining errors of logic and understanding , or stubborn resistence to alternative interpretations, are my own failings. My editors at the University of Hawai‘i Press deserve special mention for their wonderful job in facilitating the review and production of the book manuscript. Pamela Kelley, Masako Ikeda, and Susan Stone...


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