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Notes All note references to the decennial censuses refer to the manuscript U.S. federal census returns, available on microfilm and online, except where the reference is specifically to the published census compendia. Abbreviations AAS American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass. ABHMS American Baptist Home Mission Society ACWS American Civil War Soldiers, online database, [] AF American Freedman AFUC American Freedmen’s Union Commission AM American Missionary AMA American Missionary Association AMAA American Missionary Association Archives, Amistad Research Center, Tulane University, New Orleans, La. ASA Alabama State Archives, Montgomery, Ala. BRFAL Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. BRFAL following a state refers to the records of the bureau superintendent of education for that state; BRFAL following Ed. Div. refers to records of the Education Division, i.e., the headquarters of the division within the bureau; BRFAL following other designations refers to other o≈ces within the bureau. BRFAL records were consulted on micro- film; each reference is followed by the National Archives microfilm collection number and the roll number within the collection, e.g., M803:7. CR Christian Recorder CSR Compiled Service Records, manuscripts, National Archives, Washington, D.C. CU Cornell University, Olin Library, Special Collections, Ithaca, N.Y. CWPR Civil War Pension Records, manuscripts, National Archives, Washington, D.C. DU Duke University, Perkins Library, Durham, N.C. FA Freedmen’s Advocate 190 Notes FF Freedmen’s Friend FFA Friends Freedmen’s Association, the name given to the Friends’ Association of Philadelphia and Its Vicinity for the Relief of Colored Freedmen FJ Freedmen’s Journal FR Freedmen’s Record FSTC Freedmen’s Savings and Trust Co., CD database GPO Government Printing O≈ce HBS Harvard Business School, Baker Library, Cambridge, Mass. HC Haverford College, Magill Library, Philadelphia, Pa. LASA Louisiana State Archives, Baton Rouge LC Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. LR Letters Received LS Letters Sent MdHS Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore MHC Mount Holyoke College, Archives and Special Collections, South Hadley, Mass. MHS Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston NA National Archives, Washington, D.C. NCSA North Carolina State Archives, Raleigh NEFAS New England Freedmen’s Aid Society NEYM Society of Friends, New England Yearly Meeting NF National Freedman NFRA National Freedmen’s Relief Association NOU New Orleans University, New Orleans, La. NWFAC Northwestern Freedmen’s Aid Commission NYYM Society of Friends, New York Yearly Meeting OC Oberlin College, College Archives, Oberlin, Ohio PFB Pennsylvania Freedmen’s Bulletin PFRA Pennsylvania Freedmen’s Relief Association RIHS Rhode Island Historical Society, Providence SC Swarthmore College, Philadelphia, Pa. SCC Records of the Southern Claims Commission, microfilm and manuscript, National Archives, Washington, D.C. SCSA South Carolina State Archives, Columbia SL Radcli√ Institute, Schlesinger Library, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. SoM Spirit of Missions SR School Reports TMSR Teachers’ Monthly School Reports TSLA Texas State Library and Archives, Austin UNC University of North Carolina, Wilson Library, Chapel Hill UP University of Pennsylvania, Special Collections, Philadelphia UR University of Rochester, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Rochester, N.Y. Notes to Pages ix–xiv 191 USC University of South Carolina, South Caroliniana Library, Columbia USCWS U.S. Civil War Soldiers, online database, [] UVA University of Virginia, Alderman Library, Special Collections, Charlottesville VHS Virginia Historical Society, Richmond WSHS Wisconsin State Historical Society, Madison YU Yale University, New Haven, Conn. Preface 1. Du Bois, Souls of Black Folk, 64, 65. 2. Knight, ‘‘ ‘Messianic’ Invasion of the South,’’ 645, 649. 3. Swint, Northern Teacher in the South. 4. Ibid., 82–84; Cash, Mind of the South, 140. 5. Cash, Mind of the South, 141. 6. Ho√ert, ‘‘Yankee Schoolmarms,’’ 188–201. 7. Jacqueline Jones, Soldiers of Light and Love; Selleck, Gentle Invaders; Butchart , ‘‘ ‘Army of Civilization,’ ’’ 76–87. 8. Horst, Education for Manhood; Morris, Reading, ’Riting, and Reconstruction; Butchart, Northern Schools; Joe M. Richardson, Christian Reconstruction; Butchart, ‘‘Mission Matters,’’ 1–17; along with sources cited in note 7. 9. McPherson, ‘‘The New Puritanism,’’ 611–42, quotation from 619. 10. Jones, Soldiers of Light and Love, 30–31; Perkins, ‘‘The Black Female American Missionary,’’ 123–24. In fairness, Jones makes her generalizations only for the teachers in Georgia, though it is too easy to read them as more broadly generalizable , as Perkins does. Jones’s sample is skewed toward American Missionary Association teachers, a bias she does not recognize, but one that damages conclusions drawn from the sample. Among others who echo this portrayal, see Brady, ‘‘Trials and Tribulations,’’ 5–20; Maxine D. Jones, ‘‘ ‘They Are My People,’ ’’ 78–89; Small...


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