restricted access Appendix A: Teachers in the Freed People’s Schools, 1861–1876
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Appendix A Teachers in the Freed People’s Schools, 1861–1876 The Freedmen’s Teacher Project is attempting to identify by name every teacher who worked in a school for the freed people between 1861 and 1876. Individuals are included in the database if they taught for at least one month and provided that they are identified by name, the year they taught, and at least the state in which they taught. Beyond that minimum information, the project also collects prosopographical data on race, gender, birth year, all locations and years taught, sponsoring organizations (if any), home, marital status (and changes in marital status), parents’ occupation, teachers’ occupation before and after teaching in the South, educational attainments, schools attended (academy or normal school and above), evidence of antebellum abolitionism, military experience, religious a≈liation, and other data, along with more traditional archival information. The project is ongoing , so quantitative data reported in this volume is subject to revision. There are rich historical sources from the 1860s, including lists of teachers, where they taught, and, frequently, their homes, published at least annually by most of the major northern freedmen’s aid and missionary societies, and the manuscript records of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, including lists of teachers, letters from and about teachers, and the thousands of monthly reports of the teachers. Those resources identify the majority of the teachers in that decade. Other resources flesh out the teachers from that period. For the 1870s, however, the resources are not as complete. The Freedmen’s Bureau closed, for all intents and purposes, in 1870 (very few records were kept in its last two years, 1870– 72); the larger secular freedmen’s aid societies collapsed; smaller missionary societies retrenched or withdrew; and the remaining northern aid groups reduced their work. Southern states picked up much of the educational work, but most kept poor records or the records have not survived. Incomplete records through which individual teachers can be identified are extant for only five southern states, for two to three years each, and those cover only the years prior to the resumption of Democratic rule. As a result, the project has rich and probably quite complete 180 Appendix A records for the teachers in the first decade of the southern work, but much less complete records for the second half of Reconstruction. Thus it is likely that the project documents the work of the northern teachers very well, but that it undercounts the southern teachers, black and white, particularly after 1870. To partially compensate for that undercount, the project has made rough estimates of the number of black and southern white teachers in the freed people’s schools. For the methods employed in making those estimates, see Appendix B. After the teachers were initially identified, the project systematically sought further information on them through a variety of sources. Those include the decennial censuses (1850 to, in some cases, 1920), the records of the Freedmen’s Savings and Trust Company (which also provided initial identification of a few score of the teachers), Confederate and Union Civil War military records, military pension records, the records of the Southern Claims Commission, city directories, college and university alumni catalogues and archives, the archives of the aid societies, the archives of southern black colleges and universities, and autobiographies and biographies , among many other sources. Full data is known for only a minority of the teachers. Those with common names can seldom be located in sources beyond those that initially identified them. Gender cannot be ascertained for some of those identified only by initials rather than full surnames. Misspelling of names in various sources compounds the problem of extending data on individuals. Nonetheless, by a constant process of crosschecking names and other information, mining primary and secondary sources, and linking data, the project continues to locate and eliminate duplicate records and to improve its findings. The data reported in the tables below is subject to revision as work continues on the Freedmen’s Teacher Project. However, given the current size of the database, future work is not likely to substantially change the overall conclusions, particularly regarding northern teachers. table 1-a. Gender and Race of All Teachers (Total Teachers Currently Identified, 1861–1876: 11,672) Gender n % of Gender Known % of Total Male 5,344 47.4 45.8 Female 5,934 52.6 50.8 Unknown 394 3.4 Race n % of Race Known % of Total Black...