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Illustrations and Tables Illustrations Students from the Capitol Hill School 9 Isabella Gibbons 24 Joshua E. Wilson 35 James H. Bowser 39 Mrs. Ida S. Marshall 50 Mrs. Eunice Leland 82 Miss Ellen S. Kempton 83 Joshua Stuart Banfield 86 Betsey L. Canedy 98 Jane Briggs Smith 118 Three children in Mary A. Upton’s class 129 A second group of students from the Capitol Hill School 139 Anna Gardner’s school 148 Mary S. Osborne 163 ‘‘Worse than Slavery,’’ by Thomas Nast 173 Tables 1. Teachers of the Freed People by Race and Region of Origin 20 2. Participation Rates of Teachers by Race and Region of Origin, 1861–1876 55 viii Illustrations and Tables 3. Teachers’ Gender and Mean Years of Teaching, 1861–1876, by Region and Race 81 1-A. Gender and Race of All Teachers 180 2-A. Northern Teachers by Race and Gender 181 3-A. Southern Teachers by Race and Gender 182 4-A. Teachers of Foreign Birth by Race and Gender 182 5-A. Mean Years of Teaching in Freedmen’s Schools, 1861–1876 183 6-A. Mean and Median Age at Commencement of Teaching in Freedmen’s Schools 183 1-B. Teachers in South Carolina Schools, 1870–1879, and Estimated Number in South Carolina Black Schools 186 2-B. Proportions of Teachers of Each Race to Total Population of Race in South Carolina, Adjusted Proportions, and Resulting Estimate of Total Southern Teaching Force in Southern Black Schools, 1870–1876 187 ...


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