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Notes n o t e s to t h e i n t ro du c t i o n 1. Or what Brulle (2000) calls “reform environmentalism.” 2. Hempel (1999) argues that sustainability advocates come from at least four root approaches: the natural-capital/capital-theory approach of economists ; the urban-design approach of land-use planners and architects; the ecosystem -management approach of ecologists and resource managers; and the metropolitan-governance approach of regional policy planners. Brulle (2000) interestingly includes sustainable development under his conservation discourse. 3. By “professional” I do not wish to insinuate that smaller, neighborhood groups are unprofessional. My point here is that professional groups are ones with a staff, often with staffers qualified in a cognate discipline. 4. Brulle and Schaefer Caniglia (2000:15) call frame analysis “the study of social movements from a linguistic perspective.” They continue that a discursive frame is “the taken-for-granted reality in which a social movement exists. It provides an interpretation of history that defines the origins of the movement , heroic exemplars of the movement, its process of development and future agenda. This narrative provides a group identity for movement organizations and guidance for collective actions” (ibid.). See also Benford and Hunt (1992). 5. I use the word paradigm partly in the Kuhnian (1962) sense—as a comprehensive way of seeing the world, as a worldview. However, I also see paradigms as Ritzer (1975:7) does—“a fundamental image of the subject matter” within a discipline. In other words, in this book, paradigms both describe content and worldview. 6. See http://www.jtalliance.org/docs/aboutjta.html. 7. Carmin and Balser (2002:366) note that “repertoires may consist of institutional tactics such as lobbying, litigation, and educational campaigns or expressive tactics such as protest, boycotts, and street theatre” (my emphasis). 8. The basic elements of the framework consist of five basic characteristics: a. Incorporates the principle of the right of all individuals to be protected from environmental degradation 191 b. Adopts a public health model of prevention (elimination of the threat before harm occurs) as the preferred strategy c. Shifts the burden of proof to polluters and dischargers who do harm or discriminate or who do not give equal protection to racial and ethnic minorities and other “protected” classes d. Allows disparate impact and statistical weight, as opposed to “intent” to infer discrimination e. Redresses disproportionate risk burdens through targeted action and resources. (Bullard 1994:10) 9. Local Agenda 21 was renamed Local Action 21 at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg in September 2002. 10. Local governments are, however, undertaking a wide range of sustainability projects (see ICLEI 2002a). Pressure from NGOs should yield a greater focus on equity and justice. notes to chapter 1 1. I have called this section “a brief history” because every book with an environmental justice theme seems to start with an expansive treatise on the subject . For fuller histories, see Bullard (1994) and Faber (1998). 2. Cole and Foster (200:19) argue that pinpointing a start date for the movement is impossible because the movement “grew organically out of dozens, even hundreds, of local struggles and events and out of a variety of other social movements.” 3. Faber and McCarthy (2003) identify six political movements from which the environmental justice movement has emerged: civil rights, occupational health and safety, indigenous land rights, public health and safety, human rights/ solidarity, and social and economic justice. 4. Brulle (2000:213) talks about “the movements for environmental justice,” differentiating between the “citizen-worker movement” and the “people of color environmental movement.” 5. The Natural Resources Defense Council, Environmental Policy Institute, National Wildlife Federation, Environmental Defense Fund, Izaak Walton League, Sierra Club, National Audubon Society, National Parks and Conservation Association, Wilderness Society, and Friends of the Earth. 6. As Cole and Foster (2001:33) note, however, “because of their backgrounds , these activists often have a distrust for the law and are often experienced in the use of nonlegal strategies, such as protest and other direct action.” 7. The Precautionary Principle is hinted at in Bullard’s (1994) “environmental justice framework,” but it is not fully developed there. The principle was 192 | Notes to the Introduction more fully developed at the Wingspread Conference, which took place January 23–25, 1998, in Racine, Wisconsin. 8. See http://urbanhealthinstitute.jhu.edu/cbpr.html. 9. Much of the work on CBPR is health based, but its usefulness extends beyond health issues. 10. The word “scientist” merely...

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Additional Information

ISBN
9780814707746
Related ISBN
9780814707111
MARC Record
OCLC
228230749
Pages
256
Launched on MUSE
2012-01-01
Language
English
Open Access
No
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