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2O A STATE M A D E NEW HEN William A. Graham and DavidL. Swain did not return from their call upon GeneralSherman bythe time expected, Governor Vance on 12 April took a train to the west. He found that President Davis by that time wasin Charlotte so hewent there to confer with him. Afterward he returned to Greensboro where heannounced the surrender ofGeneral Johnston at the Bennett farmhouse near Durham and then surrendered himself to a Union general. Informed that there were no orders for hisarrest, Vancejoined his family in Statesville wherefriends had provided safety. Two weeks later, on his thirty-fifth birthday , the governor wasarrested and sent to a prison in Washington, D.C. In early July hewasparoled without ever havingbeen told why he had been detained, and in March 1867 he was granted a presidential pardon. Presidential Plans to Restore the Union Since the United States Congress was not in session at the end of the war, President Andrew Johnson alone wasobliged to determine how the Southern states would be restored to the Union. As the Constitution did not provide for such an action, the president did what he thought proper. His plan, the one that Lincoln had tentatively designed, was to accept the states back into full fellowship as quickly and as easily as possible with only the most essential restrictions . The North had maintained all along that the right of secession did not exist, and that it was impossible for a state to withdraw from the United States. Logically, therefore, it should only have been necessary for the recently unruly states to take such steps as repealing the ordinance of secession and formally freeing the slaves—to demonstrate their change of heart—before resuming their former role in the nation. This wasasimple policy ofreconciliation. In the meantime the South wasoccupied bythe military.GeneralJohn McA. Schofield, who wasin command ofNorth Carolina, immediately issued proclamations declaring the war at an end and the slaves freed. He also placed GeneralJ. D. Cox in charge ofthe western part ofthe state, General A. H. Terryin the Piedmont, and General J. R. Hawley and General J. M. Palmer in the east. President Johnson began the implementation of his program with North 380 w 38i A State Made New On hearing that they were free, former slaves quickly left the plantation to seek a new life elsewhere. (North Carolina Division of Archives and History, Raleigh) Carolina, his native state, appointing WilliamWoods Holden provisional governor on 29May 1865. Johnson and Holden were on friendly terms asJohnson was aware of Holden's unionist sympathies and his role in the wartime peace movement . Holden corresponded with and visited the president in Washington. In his new position, hewasto have the cooperation ofmilitary authorities to restore order among the people, to enforce the laws, and to suppress guerrilla warfare. Having accomplished that, he was to call a convention to revise the state constitution , hold an election for state officials, and provide for the election of congressmen to be seated in December. Certain restrictions on voting and officeholding were laid down—those who had engaged in "rebellion" had to take an amnesty oath, and there were certain categories of offenses for which only a presidential pardon would qualify one to vote. Voters also had to be eligible under the provisions of the law asit existed before 20 May 1861. Holden named Jonathan Worth asstate treasurer and Charles R. Thomas as secretary of state, positions they had held under Vance. The treasury was exhausted, but Worth set about to collect taxes and otherwise to replenish it. Federal troops had seized largequantities ofcotton in North Carolina and sent it to New York to be sold as "rebel" property. Worth succeeded in halting the sale and obtaining some revenue from this source to help meet the state's most pressing needs. Since local government had also collapsed, Holden found it necessary to appoint numerous county and municipalofficials aswell. He called upon his 382 North Carolina through Four Centuries political friends around the state to submit the names of candidates for these positions, and from their lists he chose individuals to fill state and local offices. Altogether Holden named more than three thousand people, most of whom had never before held public office. He also determined which men should be pardoned for their activity during the war. In laying the foundations for his administration Holden demonstrated personal concern for the welfare of the state, and, had he not been the target of...


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