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3 A PROPRIETARY COLONY, 1 6 6 3 - 1 7 2 9 I FTERTHE BEHEADING of Charles I in 1649, Parliamentand the Cromwells held sway in London. The return of the prince of Wales in 1660 as Charles II wasnot achieved without great personal sacrifice. This happy occasion for England was the result of much planning, secret negotiating, concealed motives, and the collaboration of hundreds under the leadership of a few. The debt of King Charles II to his friends who had remained in England during the eleven-year interregnum, aswellasto those who had fled the country or who upheld the royal causein the colonies where they had lived since 1649, was great indeed. The king repaid this debt in many ways. Titles, positions, estates in England, and land abroad were among the rewards. The Carolina Charter of 1663 Eight men who contributed to Charles's return were rewarded in an unusual way. In 1663, at theirown request, theyweregranted avasttract ofAmerican land of which they were "the true and absolute Lords and Proprietaries." It lay between latitudes 3i°N and 36°N and stretched from the Atlantic Ocean to the "West in a direct Line as far as the South Seas." This was from the Albemarle Sound, asthis body ofwater cameto be known, down to St. Marys River at the present Georgia-Florida boundary, and allthe waywest to the Pacific Ocean. The Lords Proprietors soon discovered that their grant did not include the region on the Virginia frontier that wasalready settled, so they went back to the king and asked for more land. In 1665 their charter wasamended to extend their holdings one-half degree north to the present North Carolina-Virginia lineand two degrees south to a point about thirty miles north of Cape Canaveral, Florida , which was well below the Spanish town of St. Augustine. England was warning Spain of its intentions to occupy North America. Based on the grant to SirRobert Heath, the charter of the Lords Proprietors was issued on 24 March 1662/3, the last day of the year under the old Julian S3 A 54 North Carolina through Four Centuries calendar then used in England, perhaps suggesting the end of an era. The name "Carolana" wasdropped and "Carolina" adopted, this time in honor or the new King Charles. The charter contained the Bishop of Durham Clause as well as provisions for the enforcement of extensive feudal powers by the Proprietors. They could exercise martiallaw;establishcounties, towns, and other civil units; construct forts and castles; levy taxes and collect duties; appoint officials; and grant pardons. They had other privilegesas well—the right to certain fish and minerals, for example. On the other hand, colonists in Carolina also had important rights, demonstrating the new idea that privatecitizens might be protected in their rights by a formal document. Laws for the colony should be enacted "with the advice, assent, and approbation of the Freemen" or by their representatives in an Assembly. Although the Church of England was to be the established church in Carolina, the Proprietors were to permit freedom of worship to those who could not conform to the ritual and beliefs of that church so long as they did not interferewith it and paid their required tithes toward its support. For himself, King Charles demanded "Faith, Allegiance, and Sovereign Dominion " from all his subjects residing in Carolina. Colonists, in brief, were to have the samerights and obligations asifthey had remained in England, and acentury later they reminded Charles's successor of this fact. The eight Lords Proprietors included several prominent officials as well as two people who had some knowledge of America. Ranking first was Edward Hyde, earl of Clarendon, a lawyer, member of Parliament, and close adviser to both Charles I and CharlesII aswell aslord high chancellor of England. George Monck, duke of Albemarle, was next; a general in Oliver Cromwell's army, he had switched allegiance at a critical time to assist in making it possible for the monarchy to be reestablished. William Craven, earl of Craven, an army officer and friend of the royal family, served on England's permanent council of war. John Lord Berkeley,after fightingvaliantly for the royal causeat the beginning of the civil war,joined the royal family in exile. Anthony AshleyCooper,afterward earl of Shaftesbury, waschancellor of the exchequer, but he remained in England in the service of Parliament until, at a propitious time, he took subtle steps to bring about the return of the monarchy. SirGeorge...


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