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217 Notes Introduction 1. USA Men’s National Team, USA Basketball, /national/history.html (accessed November 21, 2014); Associated Press, “U.S.: 3-for-24 from 3-Point Range,” espn Olympic sports, August 17, 2004, (accessed August 18, 2014). 2. For an analysis of the U.S.-Soviet basketball rivalry during these decades, see Witherspoon, “‘Fuzz Kinds’ and ‘Musclemen.’” 3. Associated Press, “U.S.: 3-for-24 from 3-Point Range.” 4. Wojnarowski, “No Longer America’s Sport”; Caple, “Those Absent Share the Blame.” 5. Ramsay, “The World Is in the Zone.” 6. Ramsay, “The World Is in the Zone”; Wojnarowski, “No Longer America’s Sport.” 7. MacAloon, This Great Symbol, 138–44. 8. Moraña et al., Coloniality at Large. 9. Here I make direct reference to Anderson’s classic work, Imagined Communities . However, Lomnitz argues in “Nationalism as a Practical System” that Spanish American national identity has been a process in the making for over five hundred years and that this identity comes from heterogeneous populations creating meaning through “bonds of dependence.” I agree with a group of scholars who have criticized Anderson for not providing enough concrete historical proof for his claims of the construction and spread of the idea of the nation. With a profound and documented study of the institutions and individuals who actively aided in the construction of the idea of a Puerto Rican nation we can arrive at the conclusion of an imagined, better yet, performed Puerto Rican nation. See Castro-Klarén and Chasteen, Beyond Imagined Communities. 10. See Gellner, Nations and Nationalism; Hobsbawm and Ranger, The Invention of Tradition; Hobsbawm, Nations and Nationalism since 1780. 11. Arbena, “Sport and the Promotion of Nationalism in Latin America”; 218 / Notes to pages 7–13 Lever, Soccer Madness; Kittleson, The Country of Football; Ruiz Patiño, La política del sport. 12. Villena Fieno, “Fútbol, mass media y nación en la era global.” 13. Hobsbawm, Nations and Nationalism since 1780, 143. 14. Galeano, Soccer in Sun and Shadow, 45. 15. Chatterjee, The Nation and Its Fragments, 5–6. 16. Hutchinson, “Cultural Nationalism and Moral Regeneration.” 17. Duany, The Puerto Rican Nation on the Move; Carrión, Voluntad de nación; Sotomayor, “Patron Saint Festivities, Politics, and Culture.” 18. López Rojas, El debate por la nación, 14, 81. 19. Guerra, Popular Expression and National Identity in Puerto Rico; Scarano, “The Jíbaro Masquerade and the Subaltern Politics of Creole Identity Formation in Puerto Rico”; Torres, “La gran familia puertorriqueña ‘Ej prieta de beldá.’” 20.Benítez Rojo, La isla que se repite. 21. Huertas González, Deporte e identidad. 22. Carpentier and Lefèvre, “The Modern Olympic Movement, Women’s Sport and the Social Order during the Inter-war Period.” 23. Dyreson, “Prolegomena to Jesse Owens.” 24. United Nations, Department of Public Information, News and Media Division, “Special Committee on Decolonization Approves Text Calling upon United States to Initiate Self-Determination Process for Puerto Rico.” 25. For a detailed study of Puerto Rican autonomists, see Negrón-Portillo, El autonomismo puertorriqueño, su transformación ideológica (1895–1914). 26. Cabán, Constructing a Colonial People, 51–65. 27. ¿Desaparece la camiseta boricua de las Olimpiadas bajo la estadidad?,” Primera Hora, August 8, 2012, gobierno-politica/nota/desaparecelacamisetaboricuadelasolimpiadas bajolaestadidad-680594/ (accessed October 29, 2013); “Richard Carrión aclara sus expresiones sobre el Copur y la estadidad,” Primera Hora, November 29, 2011, richardcarrionaclarasusexpresionessobreelcopurylaestadidad-585044/ (accessed October 29, 2013). 28. Albizu Campos, República de Puerto Rico; Torres, Pedro Albizu Campos, vols. 1–3. 29. Silén, Pedro Albizu Campos; Prieto, Albizu Campos y el independentismo puertorriqueño; Carrión et al., La nación puertorriqueña; Power, “Nationalism in a Colonized Nation: The Nationalist Party and Puerto Rico.” 30. José Santori Coll, personal interview, September 22, 2014. Notes to pages 13–23 / 219 31. Torres, Pedro Albizu Campos, 3:15. 32. Power, “The Puerto Rican Nationalist Party, Transnational Latin American Solidarity, and the United States during the Cold War,” 25–26. 33. Coubertin, “Athletic Colonization” and “Athletic Unification” in Olympism , 703, 697. 34. Elias, The Empire Strikes Out, 42, 109–10. 35. Gems, The Athletic Crusade, 1–16. 36. Torres, “Peronism, International Sport, and Diplomacy,” 175. 37. For the legal basis and analysis of the legal and constitutional parameters of the...


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