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Notes Chapter One. Demography and Alienation 1.The Central Intelligence Agency estimates that Sierra Leone has a population of 5,363,669 while Ireland’s is 4,670,976 (July 2011 estimates; Central Intelligence Agency 2011a, 2011b) 2.A recent recollection lends context to this statement:“Several years ago,I wrote that the central irony concerning Africa’s urban youth was that ‘they are a demographic majority that sees itself as an outcast minority’(Sommers 2003: 1).Since that time, field research with rural and urban youth in war and postwar contexts within and beyond Africa has led me to revise this assertion.The irony appears to apply to most developing country youth regardless of their location” (Sommers 2012b: xv). 3. Seventy-four percent of Angolans and 75 percent of Rwandans are ages zero through twenty-nine. The other three countries have proportions between these two: drc and Liberia are both at 74.6 percent, while Burundi is at 74.9 percent.The proportion of Ugandans under age thirty is the world’s highest: 78.2 percent of the entire population (Leahy et al. 2007: 90). 4.While premarital pregnancy and birth is a fact in my fieldwork with and about African youth,it is also a more widely documented,and rising,phenomenon.Over a decade prior to the writing of this book,Calvès was able to draw from several sources to highlight that “one of the most significant changes”in the “timing and sequencing of family formation events”in sub-Saharan Africa has been “the increasing prevalence of pregnancies and births among adolescents who are not formally married.Because young African women and men postpone first marriage but often do not wait for marriage to become sexually active premarital pregnancies and births are on the rise” (1999: 291). 5. McLean Hilker and Fraser define “the multiple dimensions of exclusion” as follows: economic exclusion (“unemployment,underemployment,lack of livelihood, lack of ownership of assets”); political exclusion (“lack of political participation,voice, and decision-making power”); social exclusion (lack of or limited access to “education, 2 0 2 N O T E S T O C H A P T E R S O N E A N D T W O health,water,sanitation,and housing”); and cultural status (“lack of recognition of a group’s cultural practices,discrimination,loss of status/respect,humiliation/honour, lack of identity”) (2009: 10). 6. As does the African Union, which defines both “youth” and “young people” as “every person between the ages of 15 and 35 years” (African Union 2006: 3). 7. The explanation that unicef provides concerning the challenges to defining adolescence is excellent (unicef 2011: 8, 10, 12). 8. Excerpt from “Youthman,”a song by Lansana Sheriff, Freetown, Sierra Leone, 2008; translated from Krio. Honwana (2012: 24) cites these lyrics as well. 9. Although Green (2012) mixes “Africa” with “sub-Saharan Africa” in his book chapter, he appears to be referring exclusively to sub-Saharan Africa. 10.Goldstone argues that “it was not population growth per se but rather growth beyond the absorptive capacity of early modern economic,social,and political institutions that undid these delicate balances and ruptured the social order”(1991: 469). 11.This thesis is detailed in Sommers 2011. 12. Cincotta and Doces note that there are other locations for “high youth-bulge proportion states”beyond Africa and the Middle East.They are states found in “the South American Andes, in the midrib of the Central American isthmus, on the island of Hispaniola [that is,the Dominican Republic and Haiti],and in the Pacific Islands” (2012: 101). 13.The events were both sponsored by the Society for International Development: Youth in Development Work Group. One was called “How Far to Take Empowerment ? Genuine Youth Engagement: What Does It Look Like? How to Achieve It?” It took place on March 21, 2012, at irex, an ngo based in Washington, D.C. The second event was entitled “Measuring the ‘Hard-to-Measure’: Evaluating Youth Outcomes in a Peacebuilding Context,” which took place on May 8, 2012. 14.The event on urban poverty was hosted by the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, D.C. It was called “Reducing Urban Poverty: A Policy Workshop,” and it took place on November 1, 2011. Chapter Two. The Wartime Template 1. Representing Mende words in English is challenging because the Mende language uses a different alphabet.Discussions with Mende-language experts surfaced a second spelling: sorkwaehun. A related Mende term is...


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