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Notes All citations to Rawick, Suppl. 1, refer to interviews and narratives collected between 1936 and 1938 under the auspices of the Work Projects Administration (and known as the WPA Slave Narratives), published in George P. Rawick , ed., The American Slave: A Composite Autobiography, supplement series 1, 12 vols. (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1978). Mississippi Narratives encompass vols. 6–10; Georgia Narratives encompass vols. 3–4. There is also a supplement series 2 of 10 vols. The full set includes almost four thousand WPA slave narratives , organized by state. Notes to the Preface 1. Harvey Graff, Conflicting Paths: Growing Up in America (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995), p. 23. 2. For example, Timothy Dow Adams, Telling Lies in Modern American Autobiography (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990); Kathleen Ashley, Leigh Gilmore, and Gerald Peters, eds., Autobiography and Post-Modernism (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1994); Sidonie Smith and Julia Watson, eds., Getting a Life: Everyday Uses of Autobiography (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996). 3. Graff, Conflicting Paths, p. 24. 4. A large body of critical scholarship exists on how to read and evaluate autobiography. Among the most useful are Sidonie Smith and Julia Watson, Reading Autobiography: A Guide for Interpreting Life Narratives (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001); Timothy Dow Adams, Telling Lies in Modern Autobiography (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990); and Liahna Babener, “Bitter Nostalgia: Recollections of Childhood on the Midwestern Frontier,” in Elliott West and Paula Petrik, eds., Small World: Children and Adolescents in America, 1850–1950 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1992). 5. Burness E. Moore and Bernard D. Fine, eds., Psychoanalytic Terms and Concepts (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1990). 6. Erik Erikson, Childhood and Society (New York: Norton, 1950). 7. For example, Judith Rich Harris, The Nurture Assumption: Why Children 225 Turn Out the Way They Do (New York: Free Press, 1998), pp. 91–92, 160–65, 179–80; and Beatrice Blyth Whiting and Carolyn Pope Edwards, Children of Different Worlds: The Formation of Social Behavior (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988), pp. 85–132 8. For example, Media Awareness Network, “Special Issues for Tweens and Teens,” 2004, issues_teens_marketing.cfm (accessed October 10, 2005). 9. Linda Perlstein, Not Much, Just Chillin’: The Hidden Lives of Middle Schoolers (New York: Ballantine, 2003), p. 55. Notes to the Introduction 1. Mark Twain, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1875), p. 33. 2. Neil J. Smeltzer and Paul B. Baltes, eds., International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1st ed. (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2001), vol. 17, pp. 11,501, 11,503. 3. Brian Sutton-Smith, the foremost scholar of children’s play, has summarized most of the important theories in The Ambiguity of Play (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1997). See also Sutton-Smith’s Toys as Culture (New York: Gardner, 1986). Some recent theory on the psychological functions of play can be found in Catherine Garvey, Play, enl. ed. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1990), and Jeffrey H. Goldstein, ed., Toys, Play, and Child Development (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994). 4. Much of the most important theorizing on play derives from the French philosopher and writer Roger Caillois and the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga. Caillois elaborated his theory of play in Man, Play, and Games, translated by Meyer Barash (New York: Free Press, 1961). Huizinga’s major work in this field is Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play Element in Culture (Boston: Beacon , 1955). 5. These distinctions of play are derived from Marcy Guddemi, Tom Jambor , and Robin Moore, “Advocacy for the Child’s Right to Play,” in Doris Fromberg and Doris Bergen, eds., Play from Birth to Twelve and Beyond (New York: Garland, 1998), esp. pp. 519–20. 6. An early finding of this sort is Harvey C. Lehman and Paul A. Witty, The Psychology of Play Activities (New York: A. S. Barnes, 1927), pp. 189–90. See also Sutton-Smith, Ambiguity of Play, p. 46. 7. Caillois, Man, Play, and Games, p. 28 8. Sutton-Smith, Ambiguity of Play, pp. 46–47, 231–32. 9. The label of play as children’s work has been attributed to Susan S. F. Isaacs in her work, Social Development in Young Children (1933), quoted in P. K. Smith, “Play, Ethology, and Education: A Personal Account,” in T. A. Pelle226 Notes to the Preface grini, ed., The Future of Play Theory (Albany: SUNY Press, 1995), pp. 1–22...


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