publisher colophon

Index

Abrams, Samuel J., 1314, 92

Accountability, 4, 144

Activists

donors activist, 24, 38, 60

executive committee, 8

ideological activists, 16, 22, 61, 116, 120

influence of, 112

insurgents, 22

issue activists, 12, 2022, 89, 142

party activists, 13, 15, 19, 111

pro and con, 12

purist activists, 22, 61

rallying, 6

role of, 9

Adelson, Sheldon, 48, 112, 146

Aldrich, John, 1012, 16

The Amateur Democrat (Wilson, James Q.), 13

Amateurs. See purists

American democracy, 1, 3, 15, 88

American Political Science Association (APSA), 10

Anti-circumvention, 141

Anticorruption

approach, 3, 107, 145, 158

consequence of, 151

framework, 135

laws, 139

logic of Buckley, 40

reform, 159

strategy, 4, 75

Antifederalists, 150

Antiparty laws impact, 34

Back door, 39, 150

Barber, Denise ROTL, 117

Bartels, Larry, 148

BCRA. See Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA)

Bias

business, 69

electoral, 38

of findings, 23

ideological, 41, 6061

kind of, 107, 160

outcomes, 45, 61

participatory, 44, 54

representational, 41, 151

small donors, 148

towards, 128

of wealthy, 134

Big tents, 1112

Bimodal distribution, 15, 45, 48, 94, 98, 120

Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA), 35, 126, 131, 141, 145, 15051. See also McCain-Feingold Act

Bipartisan compromises, 17

Bipartisanship, 91, 100102

Brat, David, 17

Buckley v. Valeo, 40, 122, 145

Burke, Edmund, 10

Burkean goal, 10

Business groups, 11617, 126

Business interests

benefit seekers, 135

campaign funds, 6465

financial rescue plan, 69

financing, 125

funds from, 84

independent spending by, 127

model of, 82

PACs, 37

pragmatic, 114

pragmatic interests, 151

program policies, 12

right-of-center candidates, 153

soft money, 126

Business PACs, 11617, 12526

California Republican Party, 19, 23

Campaign agenda, 125, 140, 143, 146

Campaign benefactors, 1

campaign finance reforms and polarization, 46

party-centered vs. candidate-centered financing, 24

political parties and democracy, 68

Campaign contributions, 143

Campaign finance condition, 159

Campaign finance laws

in American states, 5

candidate-centered system of, 39

candidates affected by, 34

changing, 144

consequences of, 34

corruption, 155

critics of, 136

donor decision impact, 38

effect of, 112, 151

effectiveness, 151

factional power shaping, 1920

finance struggle, 2

flow of money, 105

funding limits, 33

hydraulics of, 4

on ideological polarization, 26

importance of, 108

inefficiency of, 145

influence of, 29

information on, 26

matter, 30

or parties effects of, 33

party-centered, 144

political donors link with, 34

reform, 109

significant variance on, 29

state and national, 26

strength from, 25

types of, 30

Campaign finance regulations, 20, 91, 134, 155

Campaign finance rules, 36, 110

Campaign finance system, 39, 134, 136

Campaign financing, 3335

Campaign funds

allocating, 39

control of, 85

distributing, 72

focus on, 18

private contributions, 60

proportion of, 84

source of, 84

Campaign money

campaign financial laws impact, 3943

donors’ affect by, 5354

donors’ recipients of, 5458

finance system, 3943

individual donors, 3739

limits on contributors, 3637

summary about, 5859

Canals vs. dams, 13436

Congress effectiveness, 14447

party organization resources, 14244

party-centered finance system, 13640

party-centered system reliance, 14041

political parties as conduits, 14142

pro-party reform implementation, 14760

Candidate-centered system. See also Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA)

challengers vs. incumbents under, 120

emergence of, 6264

of financing, 39

ideological candidates benefit from, 7779

ideological donors, 57

incumbents dominate in, 7276

party-centered laws effects, 7981

political parties marginal players, 85

Candidates

highly conservative, 116

limits on contribution to, 29

moderate, 23

nominating favorites, 141

vs. parties, 50

source of funds to, 34

Cantor, Eric, 17, 22

Cash conduits, 159

Catalist findings, 4346, 48, 57, 94

Caucus committees. See legislative parties

Causal claims data, 31

Causes

behalf of, 110

partisan, 52

of partisan polarization, 56

underlying, 2

Central party committee, purists capture of, 23

Centrists, 17, 19, 62

Challengers, 117, 120

Citizen representation, 1

Citizens United v. FEC, 7, 40, 122, 125, 145

Class constituency concerns, 14

Clean Elections Law, 140

“Cleansing” effect on polarization, 109

Clinton, Hillary, 17

Club for Growth, 12

Cochran, Thad, 21

Communications

disclosure of, 122

means of, 18

Competitive districts, 67, 71, 81, 84, 90, 116

Compromise

bipartisan, 17, 37, 120

demand for, 60, 95, 143, 147

financing, 97

forging support, 16

vs. gridlock, 14

history of, 151

jeopardy with, 22

kinds of, 69

lack of, 1, 14849

legislation, 92, 106, 116

need for, 128, 131, 136

of policy, 98, 100

tending, 38

unions on, 66

Conceptual models, 15

Conservative donors, 48, 5054, 77, 115, 144, 153

Conservative voters, 17, 22

Conservatives

business favor of, 72

donors, 24, 59

vs. extremes, 71, 116

ideological spectrum, 50

vs. liberals, 158

on parties, 24

social conservatives, 12

Constituencies, 151

Contribution limitless, 147

Contribution limits. See also Buckley v. Valeo

circumventing, 63, 75

effects of, 36, 40

impacts of, 41, 54, 59

imposition of, 115

leverage from, 37

low contribution limits, 126, 134, 156

on parties vs. states, 79

states with, 100, 131

vs. super PACS, 131

use of, 118

without, 39

Contributions

earmarking, 141

limitless, 147

limits of, 36

size of, 36

Contributions limit. See also low contribution limits

changing, 147

circumventing, 63

as dams, 135

effects of, 36, 4041, 54, 63, 134

grassroots, 54

ideological donors, 39

imposing, 156

purist leverage, 37

states with, 79, 100, 131

uses of, 118

Cooperative Congressional Election Study (CCES), 4243, 47, 4951

Corruption. See also Buckley v. Valeo

avoiding, 117

combating, 135

defining, 151

donation, 38

vs. ideological polarization, 126, 139, 145

monumental, 6

narrative, 37, 150

opposing, 147

preventing, 35, 122, 152, 155

problems of, 3

quid pro quo, 40, 145

reducing, 155, 157

reforms, 15759

thwarting, 134

Corruption in America (Teachout, Z.), 148

Cross-filing, 19

Cruz, Ted, 2122

Culture War, 12

Dams, directed, 135

Dark money, 155, 159

Davis, Tom, 129

Deals, 6, 13, 37, 135, 143

Default option, 140

Democracy, 1, 3, 6, 9, 15, 109, 14750, 15557, 159. See also American democracy

Democratic Party

donors, 51

extremes of, 116

ideological donors, 15354

labor unions and, 116, 127, 154

left move, 51, 59

local, 131

tension within, 17

Donor groups, 67, 79, 117

Donors

behavior of individual, 37

bias of, 45

characteristics of, 44

demographic profile of, 59

description of, 114

extremist nature, 45

ideological donors, 148

ideological population, 148

ideological views, 115

incentives of individual, 39

kinds of, 38

liberal, 50

motivation, 49

overlapping, 49

per capita, 57

political, 42

reveal the names of, 136

very liberal, 5253

Downs, Anthony, 9, 12, 16

Downs’s theory, 12

Downs/Aldrich teams, 16

Edsall, Thomas, 159

Effective dams, 110

Elections, state-level, election patterns, 114

Electoral bias, 38

Electoral goals, 89, 90

Electoral resources, 2, 8, 1011, 13, 96

Electoral rules, 1719

Electoral system, 5, 36, 38, 118, 125, 137, 139

Equal representation, 151

Expenditures, party coordination, 145

Extreme policies, 109

Extremism, 11, 34, 38, 52, 84, 95, 119, 148

Factional struggle, 1617

Farewell Address (Washington, G.), 23

Favorite candidates, parties, 24

Favoritism, 153

Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA), 7, 63, 121, 14445, 147

Federal Election Commission (FEC), 137, 146

Federal party committees, 31

Finance candidates, 111

Finance elections, 134

Finance system

asymmetry in, 5153

campaign financial laws impact, 4142

evidence source, 4243

money contributors, 4347

money recipients, 4753

Financial autonomy, 147

Financial laws vs. interest groups, 2

Financial mediators role, of funding, 24

Financial parity, 154

Financial reform, 136

Financial support, 23

Financial transparency, 132

Financing constraints, 24

Financing elections, 39, 62, 97, 99100, 120, 14445, 152, 155, 157, 159

Financing restriction, 120

Fiorina, Morris P., 1314, 92

First Amendment, 39, 122, 128, 145, 151

501(c)4 organizations, 112, 132, 146, 154

Flow of money

accountability, 146

into campaigns, 41

to candidate types, 34

consequences of, 106

enabling, 79

financing laws shaping, 87

ideological candidates and, 86

institutional, 88, 105, 148

laws affecting, 42, 118

by political parties, 59

into politics, 135

privileging, 62

shapes affected, 91

stopping into politics, 5, 38

through parties, 137

Forbes 400/ Fortune 500 companies, 114

Fragmentation, 136

Freedom Club State PAC, 129

Freedom preservation, 155

Funding, 24, 113

Funds source, 5

Fusion ballot, 19. See also cross-filing

Gallup Poll, 157

GDP and election-related spending, 45

Gingrich, Newt, 48, 112

Goals

Burkean, 10

electoral, 89, 90

ideological, 12

narrow policy, 12

policy vs. electoral, 9

GOP donors, 5152

Governance

laws affecting, 33

problems, 25

promoted better, 35

structure, 21

Government, matching system approach, 138

Grassroots, 25, 54, 12931, 154, 159

Gridlock, 92

Group-centric approach, 1314, 16, 109

Groups. See business groups; donor groups; group-centric approach; interest groups; issue groups; nonparty groups

Groups strategy, 13

Herron, Michael C., 109

Hobbes, Thomas, 14

Hobbesian insiders, 19

Hobbesian pragmatists, 14, 109

Hobbesian world view, 9

Home-style issues, 10

Hume, David, 151

Hydraulic theory. See also IEs (independent expenditures)

of campaign finance reform, 56

of campaign reform, 56

IE spending, 121, 133

of money, 110

partisan money flow, 145

Hydraulics of campaign money

individual donors, 115

key findings, 114

law limits and independent spending, 12124

laws affecting, 118

moderate candidates support, 11618

partisans and independent spending, 12432

party asymmetry, 11516

pragmatists and purists revisioned, 10810

pro-party laws, 12021

transparency lock, 13233

Idealist party outsiders, 14

Ideological activists as party gatekeepers, 16

Ideological asymmetries, 51

Ideological candidates, 5, 24, 43, 5859, 62, 73, 7779, 81, 8586, 111, 11415, 11718

Ideological distribution, 9, 15, 45, 48, 6870, 77, 100

Ideological donors, 50, 5759, 61, 65, 81, 91, 111, 114, 117, 121, 125, 128, 13738, 151

Ideological extremes, 45, 60, 77, 84, 11416, 151

Ideological interest, 148

“Ideological” money, 58, 109

Ideological money, 144

Ideological polarization

campaign finance laws on, 26

candidate center systems, 24

effects of, 112

excesses of, 2

impact of laws on, 136

laws affecting, 34

negative consequences, 156

Ideological poles, 5

Ideological preferences, 51

Ideological resistance

institutional dimension, 8791

partisan polarization, 9195

partisan polarization in states, 9195

party-controlled money, 9597

party-created campaign, 97103

party-created campaign hypothesis, 97103

in state legislature, 87107

Ideological rigidity, 15

Ideological scale, 45, 48, 5051

Ideological scores, 48, 70, 94, 97

Ideological spectrum, 49

Ideologues, 144

IEs (independent expenditures), 12033, 144

Incumbency status, 117

Incumbent(s), 11, 13, 21, 34, 41, 62, 6466, 6875, 7785, 111, 11617, 11920, 13637, 139, 142, 145, 147, 152

Independent spending

effectiveness, 151

partisan polarization, 12432

Individual donors, 115

Insider models, 10, 1516

Insiders, 811, 14, 1923

Institutional filter, 128

Institutional party, 10

Interest groups, 26, 10, 12, 1820, 2428, 34, 39, 51, 53, 6061, 65, 67, 81, 85, 89, 91, 107, 109, 111, 121, 129, 137, 14344, 146, 159

Issue activists, 20

Issue groups, 5, 19, 37, 59, 6566, 6869, 72, 74, 7779, 82, 8485, 88, 95, 11518, 120, 125, 12728, 130, 140, 146, 151, 158

Kant, Immanuel, 14

Kantian purists, 14

Key findings

flow of money affected by laws, 11820

ideological donors sources, 11314

ideological small donors vs. large donors, 11415

moderate candidates support from party financing, 11718

nonparty party sources of funding, 113

party asymmetry notice, 11516

party organization vs. institutional donors, 11617

pro-party laws and legislatures, 120

Labor, relative to capital, 18

Labor unions, 82, 11617, 122, 12528, 154, 157. See also unions

Laissez-faire policies, on money, 153

Large donors, 138

Laws

complex, 136

favoring financial role, 118

favoring party organization, 118

party limits and independent spending, 12124

Leapfrog representation, 92

Legislative candidates, donors to, 48

Legislative parties, pragmatic work of, 22

Legislative polarization, effects of, 30

Leverage, in party affairs, 18

Liberal candidates, 128

Liberal donors, 48, 50, 5253, 115, 15354

Liberals

position of, 47, 68, 100, 112

social, 12

views of, 59

Liberty, 153

Long coalitions, 13

Loopholes, 141

Low contribution limits, 3, 39, 54, 75, 114, 122, 126, 13435, 157

Madison perspective, 152

Madisonian pluralism, 148

Majority entrance, 88

Martin, Ken, 129

Masket, Seth, E., 19

Matching system approach, 138

Material benefits, 9, 65, 7273, 79, 85, 116, 151

Materialists

party insiders, 14

pragmatists as, 9

McCain-Feingold Act, 3, 111. See also soft money

McCarty, Nolan, 26, 32, 97, 148

McCutcheon v. FEC, 14447

McDaniel, Chris, 2122

Media coverage, 14, 60

Median ideologies, 94

Median voters, 9, 11, 15, 23, 41, 45, 62, 6568, 8586, 9597, 111, 11617, 121, 140, 15152

Mediation, 24, 128, 148

Mega-donors, 112

Milyo, Jeff, 27

Minimalist approach, 136

Moderate candidates, 30

Moderate politics, 23

Moderates, 34, 52, 5859, 6162, 66, 69, 7173, 77, 79, 81, 8487, 9192, 97, 101, 114, 11619, 13738, 141, 143

Moderating organizations influence, 2324

Moderation as byproduct, 11

Money. See also soft money; wealthy donors

chase after, 150

flow concerns, 153

flow of, 41

flow rules, 56

importance of, 150

interested, 149

laissez-faire policies on, 153

limits to sources, 27

per capita, 31, 129

problems from, 149

raising, 44

recipients, 4753

regulating in politics, 117

MoveOn.Org, 143

Multiple constituencies, 24

Murphy, Chris, 109, 119

Name recognition, 24

Narrow-issue activists, 20

National Conference of State Legislatures, 139

National Institute for Money in State Politics (NIMSP), 34, 39, 43, 72, 124, 128

National Republican Senate Committee (NRSC), 21

Network theory, 8889

1974 FECA, 147

Nomination process, 96

Nonparty groups, 122, 125, 143, 145, 151, 154

Nonparty party organization fundraiser, 21

Nonparty supporters, 5

Normal distribution, of median voter, 15

NRA, 143

One-party districts, 141

Open systems, 89

Organization limits, 103

Outside shadow parties, 25

Overcomplexity, of regulations, 137

PAC contributions, 117, 139, 147

PACs, 2728, 34, 37, 40, 63, 73, 137, 145. See also business PACs; super PACs

Participatory bias, 44, 54

Parties

ban on, 145

as competing factions, 1518

enabling funds, 118

as filters, 118

ideological dancing of, 113

ideological divergence of, 1112

meaning of, 7

money through, 137

perform positive functions in practical politics, 33

stronger role for, 120

Parties controlled by insiders, 811

Parties controlled by outsiders, 1135

matter of campaign finance laws, 30

party organizations and insiders, 1924

polarizing influence of candidate-centered politics, 2426

state-based empirical approach, 2630

Partisan activities, 112

Partisan asymmetry, 59

Partisan money, 145

Partisan network, 61, 89

Partisan polarization

attenuation, 11

campaign finance laws effects of, 33

cause of, 56

cleansing effect on, 109

consequences of, 1

effect of, 134

finance affecting, 28, 30

ideological, 2

independent spending effect, 124

lessening, 81

levels of, 26

measure of, 57

potential impact, 1

representation in the American states, 9192

Partisans, 5, 12, 14, 17, 21, 51, 89, 109, 113, 120121, 123, 125, 132, 142, 14546, 15254

Party

affairs, 18

campaign, 8889

chair, 8

coordination, 13

discipline, 11

duopoly, 7

elements of, 109

group-centered, 14

insiders, 14

pragmatic work of leaders, 22

restriction of financing, 24

Party bosses, 3, 89, 11, 16, 89, 143, 150

Party coalition(s), 5, 9, 1213, 1619, 2526, 37, 59, 61, 6768, 1078, 112, 12728, 135, 14244, 148, 151, 158

Party committees, 21, 23, 31, 38, 40, 5253, 58, 6364, 66, 69, 75, 77, 8890, 9596, 125, 14142, 14446

Party constitution groups and activists, 12

Party contributions for candidates limits, 28

Party leadership, 5, 8, 11, 13, 15, 3031, 33, 38, 40, 5253, 6364, 66, 6869, 75, 77, 8890, 9598, 125, 142, 14446

Party limits

absence of, 83

effect of, 83, 98, 11920

independent spending and partisan polarization, 12432, 145

individual funds, 8081

polarization after, 1045

prevalence of, 102

spending laws, 12124

Party machine, 3

Party organizations

behavior, 2

fortifying, 147

history of, 113

insiders parties controlled by outsiders, 2024

institutional mediation, 148

laws vs. interest groups, 24

leadership, 21

leverage, 88

mediation of moderation, 128

moderating organizations influence, 2324

representative width toward, 20

Party outsiders, idealists, 14

Party polarization, 144

Party system, 25

Party-building, 145

Party-centered finance system

about, 13637

contribution limits, 137

models limits, 137

party organization support, 13840

restrictions of, 13738

Party-centered laws, 34, 5657, 62, 7982, 91, 100, 106

Party-centered strategy, 141

Party-centered system, 159

Party-centered vs. candidate-centered financing, 24

Party-in-service model, 10

People control rules, 7

Per capita fundraising, by state parties, 30

Per capita giving, 3132

Pew Research, 157

Plunkitt, George Washington, 9

Pluralism, 148, 152

Pluralist framework, 148

Pluralist solution, 148

Pluralist tradition, 136

Polarization. See also ideological polarization; partisan polarization

decreased, 137

effect on, 112

solving, 143

Polarization ads, 130

Polarized America (McCarty, Poole, and Rosenthal), 148

Polarized politics, 17

Polarizing influence of candidate-centered politics, 2426

Policy demanders, 5, 1213, 16, 68, 71, 90, 107, 143

Policy goals vs. electoral goals, 9

Policy gridlock, 1

Policy recommendations, 35

Policy-oriented donors, 79, 85

Political balance, 88

Political contributions, patterns of, 34

Political contributors, 34, 4243, 47, 138. See also Catalist findings

Political domination, 40

Political elites, accountable, 109

Political money, flows of, 4

Political parties, 23, 68, 10, 12, 15, 20, 25, 28, 3134, 3639, 42, 48, 51, 59, 6164, 6667, 71, 7578, 80, 83, 8591, 96, 102, 1078, 111, 113, 11518, 12024, 12829, 13641, 14448, 15055

Political parties and democracy, 67

Political parties conceptions, 7

Political reformers, 3

Political reforms, 25

Political transparency and accountability, 4, 133, 144

Politicians

ambitions of, 17

attention from, 13

attention of, 112

behaviors of, 143

bought off, 150

centrists, 62

compromise allow, 14

contributions, 37, 114, 119

depending, 110

donations for, 40

donors, 41

donors use for, 36

electoral system, 38

evaluations of, 42

favored, 40

freestanding, 13

ideological, 59

law changes, 31

needs of, 18

party domination, 16

polarizing, 42

pressure, 129

Politics

cost of, 136

media coverage of, 14

moderating, 96

origin, 3

Poole, Keith T., 148

Pope, Jeremy, 92

Populist reform, 146, 151

Postwar years, 1516

Power, benefits of, 109

Pragmatic ambition, 149

Pragmatic party organization, 111

Pragmatist insiders, 11

Pragmatists

disadvantage, 143

as materialists, 9

moderating tendencies of, 134

on nonparty party organization fundraiser, 21

party control, 14849

party organization, 21

policy concerns, 17

vs. purists, 1617, 19, 111

into purists, 113

strategic benefit loss, 12930

Pragmatists and purists, 1617, 20, 11012

Principals, solidarity on, 10

Private money, 140, 160

use of, 140

Problems of corruption, 3

Progressives

demographic problems, 150

on regulatory state, 17

Pro-party laws, 146, 158

effect of, 112

Pro-party reform implementation

about, 14749

campaign finance reforms, public opinion on, 15460

prevailing narrative, 14952

strategic partnership for gaming, 15263

Public blind spots, 15

Public financing scheme, role of, 139

Public funds, 138

Public grants, 13940

Purist factions, 22, 25, 37, 67, 69, 90, 105, 124, 135, 14344, 146, 149

Purist outsiders, 17, 1920, 24, 37

Purists

campaign finance laws, 108

capture of central party committee, 23

party organization, 21

policy concerns, 17

vs. pragmatists, 1617, 19

Rank-and-file members control, 26

Ranny Index, 32

Rasmussen poll, 2

Rechanneling of money, 111

Redstate.com, 52

Reform agenda, 107

Reform proposals, 136, 148

Reform strategy, 35, 140141

Reform(s), 2, 7, 14, 25, 63, 73, 135, 13738, 144, 14647, 150, 152, 155, 157, 159. See also Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA)

Regulations

of campaign finance, 20

overcomplexity of, 137

of state parties, 28

Reiff, Neil, 130

Relationships

establishing, 85

inverse vs. direct, 111

personal, 65

Reliance, 140

Representational bias, 148

Republic Party of Orange County, California, 23

Republican candidates, 52

Republican conservatives, 52

Republican moderates, 52

Republican Party

central factor, 19

conservative activists, 153

donors, 5253

faction in, 116

factors, 12

influence of, 23

right shift, 34, 51, 59, 115

Resources

control over, 143

and factional power, 18

theory of dependency, 7

Results, catastrophic, 141

Rights, 128

Rival party, factions of, 17

Roll call votes, 26

Rosenthal, Howard, 148

Schattschneider, E. E., 16

Schwarzenegger, Arnold, 20

Senate Conservatives Fund, 21

Shadow parties, 25, 125, 152

Shor, Boris, 26, 32, 97

Skepticism, 14849

Small donors, 38, 4243, 45, 59, 114, 13839, 14748, 152

Social welfare, 132

Soft money, 3, 111, 122, 131, 141, 145

Solidarity on principals, 10

SpeechNow.org v. FEC, 122, 125

Stability, 88

State legislative, vs. central party committee, 23

State legislative elections, 114

State limitation, 122

State parties, 28, 31, 43, 48, 63, 119, 13031, 137, 141, 154

State party financing, 141

State party platform, 23

State placed limits, 32

State political parties, 29

State-based empirical approach, 2630

Super PACs, 4, 40, 112, 125, 13032, 146, 152, 154

Supreme Court, 3940, 14546

Swing voters, 67. See also median voters

System-level approach, 4

Taft, William Howard, 32

Target Corporation, 126

Tax payments, to political parties, 139

Tea Party activists, 17

Theoretical approach

parties as competing factions, 1518

pragmatists vs. purists, 1617

resources and factional power, 18

Think tanks, 112

Transparency, 4, 13031, 144

TV, 18, 25, 126, 130, 141

Two-top primary reform, 20

UCLA approach, 11, 109

Unequal Democracy (Bartels), 148

Unions, 7, 2728, 6566, 6970, 72, 74, 76, 82, 8485, 11617, 122, 12528, 131, 154, 157

United States Brewer’s Association, 121

U.S. Congress, campaign finance laws effects of, 30

U.S. Constitution, 39

Very liberal donors, 115

Vote-by-mail campaign, 130

Voter mobilization, 130

Voter signature drives, 154

Voucher program, 140

Voucher system, 140

Warner, Mark, 17

Warren, Elizabeth, 17, 115

Washington, George, 2

Wealthy donors, 3, 36, 3941, 44, 48, 54, 87, 107, 114, 119, 125, 12728, 134, 146, 14850, 15253, 15960

Westminster-style political parties, 15

Wildavsky, Aaron, 13

Wilson, James Q., 13

Winning, focus on, 116

Winning elections

benefits path, 109

candidates, 90

concern with, 117

focus on, 7

insider goal, 89, 2223

investment in, 6768

political party and, 66

power gained through, 8

pragmatic orientation, 118

premium on, 86

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Contents

Additional Information

ISBN
9780472121601
Related ISBN
9780472072996
MARC Record
OCLC
927073955
Pages
181-192
Launched on MUSE
2015-10-29
Language
English
Open Access
Yes
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