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175 Introduction 1. John Emsley, The Elements of Murder:A History of Poison (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), 93. 2. William R. Cullen, IsArsenic anAphrodisiac? The Sociochemistry of an Element (Cambridge, UK: RSC Publishing, 2008), 287. 3. Felisa Wolfe-Simon et al., “A Bacterium That Can Grow by Using Arsenic Instead of Phosphorus,” Science 332 (2011): 1163–66 . For critiques of this work, see the comments published in Science 332 (2011): 1149. On the recent criticism in Science, see Marc Kaufman, “Journal Science Retreats from Controversial Arsenic Paper,” Washington Post, July 9, 2012. 1. King of Poisons: Arsenic and Murder 1. Andrew A. Meharg, Venomous Earth: HowArsenic Caused the World’s Worst Mass Poisoning (Houndmills, UK: Macmillan, 2005), 41; William R. Cullen, IsArsenic an Aphrodisiac?, 167; John Harris Trestrail III, Criminal Poisoning: Investigational Guide for Law Enforcement, Toxicologists, Forensic Scientists, andAttorneys, 2nd ed. (Totowa, NJ: Humana, 2007), 1–6; John Emsley, The Elements of Murder, 141. 2. Cullen, IsArsenic anAphrodisiac?, 168–69; Trestrail, Criminal Poisoning, 6–7. 3. Cullen, IsArsenic anAphrodisiac?, 168; Trestrail, Criminal Poisoning, 7. For a challenge to the traditional view of Catherine, see N. M. Sutherland, “Catherine de Medici: The Legend of the Wicked Italian Queen,” Sixteenth Century Journal 9 (1978): 45–56. 4. Anne Somerset, TheAffair of the Poisons: Murder, Infanticide and Satanism in the Court of Louis XIV (New York: St. Martin’s, 2003). 5. Ian Burney, Poison, Detection, and the Victorian Imagination (Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, 2006), 19; Cullen, IsArsenic anAphrodisiac?, 169; Frank McLynn, Crime and Punishment in Eighteenth-Century England (London: Routledge, 1989), 119. 6. Burney, Poison Detection, 19–20; Katherine Watson, Poisoned Lives: English Poisoners and Their Victims (London: Hambledon Continuum, 2004), 32–33. The quotation is on page 32. 7. Watson, Poisoned Lives, 32–38. Notes 07_KingOfPoisons_Notes_REV1 9/20/12 3:13 PM Page 175 176 NOTES 8. Ibid., xii–xiii. 9. Watson, Poisoned Lives, 45; Burney, Poison Detection, 21. 10. Watson, Poisoned Lives, 2–3, 7–11. 11. Ibid., 3–5; Cullen, Arsenic, 172. 12. Watson, Poisoned Lives, 17–19; Cullen, IsArsenic anAphrodisiac?, 173; Burney, Poison Detection, 97–100. For a detailed account of the development of chemical tests for arsenic, see Robert H. Goldsmith, “The Search for Arsenic,” in More Chemistry and Crime: From MarshArsenic Test to DNA Profile, eds. Samuel M. Gerber and Richard Saferstein (Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 1997), 149–68. 13. Cullen, IsArsenic anAphrodisiac?, 174–76. 14. Ibid., 174; Watson, Poisoned Lives, 19. 15. Peter Bartrip, “A ‘Pennurth of Arsenic for Rat Poison’: The Arsenic Act, 1851 and the Prevention of Secret Poisoning,” Medical History 36 (1992): 53–69; Watson, Poisoned Lives, 42–44; Leslie G. Matthews, History of Pharmacy in Britain (Edinburgh: E. & S. Livingstone, 1962), 119–20, 369–70. 16. Stuart Anderson, ed., Making Medicines:A Brief History of Pharmacy and Pharmaceuticals (London: Pharmaceutical Press, 2005), 101–3; Matthews, History of Pharmacy, 134–36; Watson, Poisoned Lives, 43–44; Hugh N. Linstead, Poisons Law (London: Pharmaceutical Press, 1936), 1–18. 17. M. I. Wilbert, “The Evolution of Laws Regulating the Sale and Use of Poisons,” Journal of theAmerican PharmaceuticalAssociation 1 (1912): 1259–61; Martin I. Wilbert, “Sale and Use of Poison,” Public Health Reports 29 (1914): 3027–30. 18. Wilbert, “Sale and Use,” 3029. 19. The discussion of this case is based on Bruce Chadwick, IAm Murdered: George Wythe, Thomas Jefferson, and the Killing That Shocked a New Nation (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, 2009). 20. The discussion of this case is based largely on Douglas MacGowan, The Strange Affair of Madeleine Smith: Victorian Scotland’s Trial of the Century (Edinburgh: Mercat, 2007); Jimmy Powdrell Campbell, A Scottish Murder: Rewriting the Madeleine Smith Story (Stroud, England: Tempus, 2007); and H. B. Irving, ed., Trial of Mrs. Maybrick, 2nd ed., 2nd impression (Edinburgh: William Hodge, 1927). 21. For a detailed discussion of the extensive literature on the Smith case, see MacGowan, StrangeAffair, 142–49. 22. Campbell, Scottish Murder. 23. The discussion of this case is based largely on Trevor L. Christie, Etched inArsenic: A New Study of the Maybrick Case (London: George G. Harrap, 1969); Victoria Blake, Mrs. Maybrick (Kew: National Archives, 2008); and Emsley, Elements of Murder, 71–93. 24. Christie, Etched inArsenic, 265–74; Blake, Mrs. Maybrick, 102–8. 25. Emsley, Elements of Murder, 171–93. 26. The discussion of this case is based largely on Filson Young, ed., Trial of the Seddons (Edinburgh: William Hodge, 1914) and Edgar Wallace, “The Trial of the 07_KingOfPoisons_Notes_REV1 9/20/12 3:13...


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