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Notes Introduction 1. Reese, “Impact of the Great Purge,” 72. 2. See, e.g., Minakov, Stalin i zagovor generalov, 712; Pechenkin, Gibel’ voennoi elity, 147, 166. 3. Overy and Wheatcroft, Road to War, 272–274. 4. “Delo o tak nazyvaemoi ‘antisovetskoi trotskistskoi voennoi organizatsii’ v krasnoi armii,” 62–73. 5. From a large body of work, see, e.g., Wollenberg, Red Army; Schapiro, “Great Purge”; Armstrong, Politics of Totalitarianism; Erickson, Soviet High Command ; O’Ballance, Red Army; Kolkowicz, Soviet Military; Mackintosh, Juggernaut ; Blackstock, “Tukhachevsky Affair”; Conquest, Great Terror; Ulam, Stalin; Rapoport and Alexeev, High Treason; Tucker, Stalin in Power; Volkogonov, Stalin; Naveh, “Tukhachevsky”; Nichols, Sacred Cause; Ziemke, Red Army. 6. “The Purge of the Eight Russian Generals,” Manchester Guardian, 3 July 1937, 16. 7. See Duranty’s memoir, USSR, 222. 8. Davies, Mission to Moscow, 1:111. For more on Duranty’s sympathies toward the Soviet Union, see Taylor, Stalin’s Apologist. 9. See, e.g., “Many Doubts Rise in Russia on Guilt of Eight Generals,” New York Times, 26 June 1937, 1. 10. Wollenberg, Red Army, 224. 11. See Erickson, Soviet High Command, 465; Conquest, Great Terror, 201– 235; Ulam, Stalin, 457–458; Kolkowicz, Soviet Military, 56–59; Schapiro, “Great Purge,” 71. 12. This argument can be seen in work published after Stalin’s death. See, e.g., Petrov, Partiinoe stroitel’stvo v sovetskoi armii i flote, 298. 13. See, e.g., Conquest, Great Terror, 218–219. 14. For details on this version of the dossier story, see Lukes, “Tukhachevsky Affair,” 508. 15. Beneš, Memoirs, 47. The same version of events was recounted by Churchill in Second World War, 1:258–259. 16. Volkogonov, Stalin, 319. 17. See, e.g., Alexandrov, Tukhachevsky Affair, 190. There are some particularly unconvincing accounts about why Stalin would purge the military that take the dossier story even further toward fiction. In one particularly dubious 290 notes to pages 5–9 version, several prominent officers, including Tukhachevskii, discovered that Stalin had secretly worked as an Okhrana agent before the October Revolution and decided to depose him. Apparently, in response, Stalin had the dossier fabricated to incriminate the officers before they made their move. There is, however, no reliable evidence that Stalin had ever been an Okhrana agent. For details, see Brackman, Secret File of Joseph Stalin. 18. Rigby, Stalin Dictatorship, 99. Khrushchev’s explanation of the military purge blamed German intelligence for supplying the dossier of “evidence” against the high command that tricked Stalin. Thus, it was Stalin’s suspicious personality, fueled by German intrigue, that led to the execution of the Soviet Union’s military heroes. In this way, Khrushchev used the fabricated dossier story as a means to place responsibility for the military purge onto Stalin. This was in line with the thrust of postwar de-Stalinization, which looked to place blame for the violence of the Great Terror with Stalin rather than on the wider Soviet system. 19. The key memoir accounts are from political police defectors Walter Krivitskii and Aleksandr Orlov, and from the German intelligence agent Walter Shellenberg. For criticism of Krivitskii and Orlov, see Lenoe, “Did Stalin Kill Kirov, and Does It Matter?,” 352–380; Getty, Origins of the Great Purges, 211–220. For criticism of Schellenberg and other memoir accounts relevant to the military purge, see “M. N. Tukhachevskii i ‘voenno-fashistskii zagovor’” (1998), 3–6. 20. Lukes, “Tukhachevsky Affair,” 505–529. 21. Anderson et al., Voennyi sovet pri narodnom komissare oborony SSSR. That the dossier was not used during the military trial has been known for a long time, but it did not lead to suspicions about its authenticity. See Conquest, Great Terror , 222–223. 22. The best-known example of this argument can be found in Conquest, Great Terror. 23. Getty, Origins of the Great Purges, 167. 24. Rittersporn, Stalinist Simplifications, 140. 25. Getty, Origins of the Great Purges, 168. 26. Reese, “Red Army and the Great Purges,” 203. The distinction between chistki and the political repression of the Great Terror was first seen in Getty, Origins of the Great Purges, 38–57. 27. Reese, “Red Army and the Great Purges,” 211. 28. Suvenirov, Tragediia RKKA, 45–59. 29. Ibid., 51. 30. For a study drawing heavily on the transcripts of the June 1937 Military Soviet, see Pechenkin, Stalin i voennyi sovet; Pechenkin, Gibel’ voennoi elity. 31. See Anderson et al., Voennyi sovet pri narodnom komissare oborony SSSR. 32. For a comprehensive examination of how the military-fascist plot was put together...


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