In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:

Chapter 2 The Simplex Series The simplex series has three tense forms: the present, the imperfect, and the aorist. 2.1. The Present The Macedonian present is the least marked of all the tense forms. It is not marked for any of the categories that change among tense forms. The most important negative marking is for tense, and this is sufficient to distinguish the present from all the other tense forms. Since the present is not marked as being past, it is ordinarily used to denote events viewed as being in some way concurrent with the speech event: (14) Imame tumor, rak, vo nas, vednaš do pretsedatelstvoto, koj raste.  (N. M. 15 VI 74: 5) ‘We have a cancer within, close to the presidency, that is growing.’  (W. H. 1974: 134) The present may also be used for events not assigned to any specific time, e.g., the gnomic present: (15) Bez vreme ništo ne zree.  (Cepenkov 1972: 19) ‘Without time, nothing ripens.’ In addition to these uses, there exists the so-called historical present, in which the present, i.e., nonpast, can be used to refer to events which took place before the speech event: (16) Suljo i Haso odat na amam. ‘Suljo and Haso go to a Turkish bath.’ 18 2. The Simplex Series Example (16) can be interpreted as describing an event concurrent with the speech event, but in context it could also describe an act which took place at some time in the past. This use of the present is especially common in storytelling , where it is possible to jump from the past to the present and back again, and it is especially common to switch from the use of past tense forms to the present tense form when introducing a quotation: (17) Se sretnaa Tome i Slave. Tome veli: —Slave, imam trotinet.  (Ivanovski 1973a: 24). ‘Tome and Slave met one another. Tome says:’ ‘“Slave, I have a scooter.”’ The present, like the ima series, is indifferent to the aspectual opposition which distinguishes the aorist from the imperfect, and it is thus unmarked for it. Aorist and imperfect verbs can both be transformed into the historical present. There is a tendency for both perfective aorists and imperfective imperfects to be realized as imperfective presents (cf. Mutafčiev 1964: 36), as in the following examples: (18) a. Pajtondžiite se rastrčuvaat i mu gi predlagaat svoite uslugi, — toj im dava znak so glava deka ne saka. Negoviot znak tie go razbiraat kako potvrden i eden pajton se isprečuva pred nego.  (Konstantinov 1967: 43) ‘The cabbies descend on him to offer their services, and he dips his chin down [, Bulgarian style,] to signal no. They interpret his gesture as an affirmative nod, and a cab pulls up right in front of him.’  (Konstantinov 2010: 48) b. Vo taa slatkarnica odev često i mnogu arno se poznavav so kasierkata, edno ubavo veselo devojče; veselo, no se držeše dobro i ne sakaše zadevanja. I pretstavete si, gospoda, vleguvame so Baj Ganjo vo slatkarnicata, se približuvame do bifeto, devojčeto me pozdravuva veselo so dobre došol, jas ì odgovaram so nekoi obični ljubeznosti i se vraḱam da odberam nešto slatko, a vo toj moment eden protesten pisok ja zagluši celata slatkarnica.  (Konstantinov 1967: 10–11) ‘I often went to this pastry shop and had gotten to know the cashier quite well. She was a cute, cheerful girl, lively but proper, and she didn’t allow people to take liberties. So just picture this, gentlemen: Bai Ganyo and I enter the shop, we approach 19 the pastry counter, the young lady greets me cheerfully and welcomes me back, I respond with some playful pleasantries and turn to pick out a sweet, and at that moment an indignant shriek deafens the entire establishment.’  (Konstantinov 2010: 21) If these narratives were rendered in the simplex past, perfective aorists would be chosen in most cases. The present is also unmarked for status or taxis. Status, the category distinguishing the simplex past tense forms from the sum series, is neutralized in the present: (19) Toj go praveše toa. ‘He was doing it.’ (20) Toj go pravel toa. ‘He was doing it.’ (21) Toj go pravi toa. ‘He is doing it.’ The distinction between (19) and (20) is one of status, and its precise nature will be elucidated in section 2.3 and chapter 3. The fact illustrated by this set of examples is...


Additional Information

Related ISBN
MARC Record
Launched on MUSE
Open Access
Back To Top

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. Without cookies your experience may not be seamless.