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Preface to the Second Edition The field work on which this book is based was conducted in between 1971 and 1975, at a time when the Macedonian standard language (or literary Macedonian as it was known in those days) was old enough to have a generation of adult native speakers educated in its usage, but it was also young enough to have the men and women whose native dialects and intuitions were the basis of its codification at the height of their own careers as scholars. I was thus in the rare and fortunate position to be able to have access to both these groups as consultants. Moreover, both groups included both trained linguists and educated non-linguists. The book is thus a document of that state of Standard Macedonian according to both its codifiers and its everyday speakers at the time when the first generation educated entirely in the standard language had attained adulthood. I also had access to consultants who were children in Macedonia when Macedonian was a forbidden “dialect” and who were subsequently free to speak their native language. (On the history of the codification of Macedonian, see Friedman 1985, 1993a, 1998a, 2000a; see also Kōstopoulos 2000 on the fate of Macedonian in Greece and Rossos 2008 for a general history of Macedonia.) As a result of the fortuitous circumstances of the time when I did my initial field work, this book represents research that cannot be replicated today. The codifiers have almost all passed away, and even many of the first generation that they educated have already succumbed to the inevitable passage of time. However, as fate would have it, I found myself again in Skopje doing field work 35 years after the research that was the basis of this book. Although the focus of that research was multilingualism in Macedonia, especially Skopje, it was inevitable that I should have occasion to check on the changes that had or had not occurred in Standard Macedonian. I was in a position to consult with the children of some of my original consultants, now grown to adulthood , as well as their children, who were themselves teenagers or even young adults. Moreover, thanks to the efforts of one of my original consultants, Vera Stojčevska-Antiḱ this book was translated into Macedonian for the first time in 2009. The process of translation was a consultation between myself and two educated native speakers of the youngest adult generation. It was in this process that I began to undertake a revision and updating of the text. At the same time, I had the opportunity to consult with my translators and others who were unborn or only small children at the time of my initial field work as to whether they agreed with the judgments of their predecessors or not, the point being that the translation could also be revised. While I found it gratifying to discover that I still agreed with myself after 35 years, even more gratifying was to learn that both my analyses and my predictions had been born out by the passage of time and the judgments of younger speakers. I should emphasize here that my relationship with my translators was such that if they disagreed, they were free to say so since I was not the one paying them for their work, and I made it clear that their own perceptions were as important to me as the accurate translation of my words. The result of this fortunate circumstance has been that the data and judgments of the first edition published more than thirty years ago are still valid. With regard to the theoretical framework, I have retained the basic Jakobsonian approach to meaning and markedness that was the basis of the first edition (but now see especially Andrews 1990). For readers interested in how language works, such an approach has the advantage of capturing generalizations about a language’s grammar in a manner that is both enlightening and accessible to a broad audience. I should also note that James D. McCawley (personal communication) agreed that for the questions about language being asked here, the theoretical apparatus I have chosen was most suitable.1 Then there is the matter of more than thirty years of subsequent research. This question relates particularly to chapter 6, which, as it turned out, mapped out several paths of study that I would pursue in subsequent decades. Integrating that material would require the writing of another book as long as this...


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