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Notes 169 Introduction 1.All Shakespeare citations are to the Riverside Shakespeare, ed. G. Blakemore Evans, et al. 2nd ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1997). 2.William Shakespeare, As You Like It,Arden Shakespeare, 3rd ser., ed. Juliet Dusinberre (London: Thomson Learning, 2006). 3. For a distillation of the English Poor Laws written between 1531 and 1782, see Paul Slack, The English Poor Law 1531–1782 (London: Macmillan, 1990). 4. See Carroll’s superb study (focused on English early modern theater), from which the present work has greatly benefited: Fat King and Lean Beggar: Representations of Poverty in the Age of Shakespeare (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1996), 3, 47. For Carroll, “[r]arely has any culture fashioned so wily and powerful an enemy out of such degraded and pathetic materials” (47). 5.Steve Hindle,“Dearth,Fasting,and Alms: The Campaign for General Hospitality in Late Elizabethan England,” Past and Present 172 (2001): 53. 6. See, for example, the excellent collection of essays edited by Thomas Max Safley, The Reformation of Charity: The Secular and the Religious in Early Modern Poor Relief (Boston: Brill, 2003). 7.In his influential book The Other America: Poverty in the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1962), Michael Harrington begins by discussing the“invisibility ” of the poor in the age of the so-called affluent society. 8. Karl Marx, Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, trans. Samuel Moore and Edward Aveling (New York: International Publishers, 1967), 1:716 n.1. In the original, the newly ambulant serf “die neuen Herren fertig vorfindet”(Marx, Das Kapital. Kritik der politischen Ökonomie [Frankfurt: Europäische Verlaganstalt, 1967], 1:744 n.189). 9. Siro Ferrone, Attori mercanti corsari. La Commedia dell’Arte in Europa tra cinque e seicento (Turin: Einaudi, 1993), 50–88. 10.Annamaria Evangelista,“Le compagnie dei Comici dell’Arte nel teatrino di Baldracca a Firenze. Notizie dagli epistolary (1576–1653),” Quaderni di teatro 24 (1984): 50–72. 170 notes to pag e s 10– 15 11. For the Southwark riots, see Ian Archer, The Pursuit of Stability: Social Relations in Elizabethan London (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 1–14; and Roger B. Manning, Village Revolts: Social Protest and Popular Disturbances in England, 1509–1640 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988), 200–210. 12.For a discussion of the 1592 riot,incited by a crowd of apprentices and“masterless men” who were said to have assembled“by occasion and pretence of their meeting at a play,” see Carroll, Fat King and Lean Beggar, 142–43; and Annabel Patterson, Shakespeare and the Popular Voice (Oxford: Blackwell, 1989), 35–36. 13. Luciano García Lorenzo and J. E. Varey document repeated uses of the word“alms” (limosna) to indicate the portion of their profits that the companies were obliged give over to the charitable hospitals. See Teatros y vida teatral en el Siglo de Oro a través de las fuentes documentales (London: Tamesis Books, 1991), 12–13. 14.W. L.Wiley, The Early Public Theatre in France (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1960), 223. 15.For the document in English translation,see Kenneth and Laura Richards, The Commedia dell’Arte: A Documentary History (Oxford: Blackwell, 1990), 46. 16. Paula Pugliatti, Beggary and Theatre in Early Modern England (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2003), 35–54. 17. A modern version of Le fatiche comiche may be found in Ferruccio Marotti and Giovanna Romei, eds., La Commedia dell’Arte e la società barocca. La professione del teatro (Rome: Bulzoni, 1991); for the quotation, see page 346: “avevo troppo del guidoncello.” Unless otherwise noted, all translations from Italian are my own. 18. La vida de Lazarillo de Tormes y de sus fortunas y adversidades, ed. Alberto Blecua (Madrid: Castalia, 1972), 139; translated by W. S. Merwin as The Life of Lazarillo de Tormes: His Fortunes and Adversities (New York: The New York Review of Books, 2005), 68. Chapter 1 1. For discussions of the “concentric circles” of poverty, which also included the 4 to 8 percent of the“structural poor,” see Christopher Black, Early Modern Italy: A Social History (London: Routledge, 2001), 105; and Paul Slack, Poverty and Policy in Tudor and Stuart England (London: Longman, 1988), 4. 2. For the argument that poverty was a relative, not absolute, concept, see Bronislaw Geremek, Uomini senza padrone. Poveri e marginali tra Medioevo e età moderna, trans. Claudio Rosso (Turin: Einaudi, 1993), 66; Michel Mollat: The Poor in the Middle Ages: An Essay in Social History, trans. Arthur Goldhammer (1978; New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1986), 5...


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