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xv Preface National security is a topic discussed by a small number of insiders and specialists, many of whom believe that the necessary specialized knowledge puts the topic beyond the reach of the general public. I think they’re wrong. The goal of this book is to reach a wider public audience, to prepare them to participate in an informed debate, and to help them understand what they are choosing when they vote for representatives, senators, and presidents. An informed electorate is required for democracy to succeed. Some very serious and thorough studies have been conducted by national security professionals since the end of the Cold War. There appears to be a consensus that the U.S. national security system, designed after World War II and that served during the Cold War, is inadequate for the needs of the twenty-first century. There is even a broad consensus on many of the reforms needed. But meaningful reform of the national security system must be conducted amid a great deal of instability. Following four decades of relative stability in a national security strategy to counter the Soviet Union and the spread of Communism, there is nothing approaching a consensus on U.S. national security strategy or the U.S. role on the world stage today. We still refer to the present as the post–Cold War era or post-9/11 era, naming the present for what it isn’t rather than what it is. There is instability on the very meaning of national security and what constitutes a national security issue. And finally, there is a great deal of partisan instability, and it will take bipartisan agreement to undertake meaningful reforms. No attempt is made to tell readers what conclusions to draw. Presentation of competing schools of thought is prominent throughout. Nor is there any attempt to be creative. The attempt is to collect and communicate an xvi Preface existing body of knowledge to the interested reader. To that end, this book is a collection and synthesis of knowledge from those who have passed the scholarly test, including research and analysis, submission of work to peer review, and surviving the test of time. From that very large pool of knowledge, representative work was chosen primarily because it was useful for the reader. Orchestrating the Instruments of Power grew from the need to engage graduate students at Johns Hopkins University on the issues of national security in the twenty-first century, and portions have been used at the National Defense University, where uniformed military and civil servants come to study. Until recently national security was seen largely as a military problem with a military solution. But assuring national security, and international security, today requires orchestration of all instruments of national power and not just the percussion provided by the military instrument. The book is suited to that portion of the general public with an interest in how government provides for the common defense. It is equally suited to graduate students seeking a foundation upon which to conduct research and those looking for thesis topics. A book previously written on military transformation for a defense policy course, Shaping U.S. Military Forces, found utility with senior military and civilian officials in the Defense Department who wanted a better understanding of the defense establishment beyond their own service or office. Similarly, this book may be of use to the broader community spanning the State Department, Defense Department, and Intelligence Community who want a broader understanding of the national security system beyond their own department or agency. No prerequisite knowledge is assumed in the field of national security, international relations, or the military arts and sciences; only a keen interest in American national security is required. A great deal of supplementary material is provided at www.orchstrat, including text boxes providing additional detail from earlier versions of the book as well as hard-to-find official policy statements. Experts will certainly find errors both of omission and commission for which I am alone responsible. Reports of errors, small or large, will be received appreciatively at D. Robert Worley ...


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