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Notes Introduction 1. The author once attended a monster truck rally in Albany, New York, in 2002. It was delightful. 2. I am purposefully leaving out the situation of Latin America with this statement. This complex situation with respect to European (and U.S.) colonialism has been the subject of intense study and debate. Although Latin America gained independence a full century earlier than did other colonies, the U.S. economic and political dominance of the Western Hemisphere instituted a different kind of coloniality in the region. Theorists such as Walter D. Mignolo, Enrique Dussel, and Aníbal Quijano have written extensively on the subject. See Coloniality at Large: Latin America and the Postcolonial Debate, eds. Mabel Moraña, Enrique Dussel, and Carlos A. Jáuregui (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2008). 3. Walter D. Mignolo, Local Histories/Global Designs: Coloniality, Subaltern Knowledges , and Border Thinking (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000), 18. 4. Formerly the Modernity/Coloniality Research Program (M/C). Arturo Escobar traces the intellectual genealogy of the twenty-first-century M/C Research Program as “liberation theology from the 1960s and 1970s; debates in Latin American philosophy and social science around notions of liberation philosophy and autonomous social science (e.g., Enrique Dussel, Rodolfo Kusch, Orlando Fals Borda, Pablo Gonzales Casanova, Darcy Ribeiro); dependency theory; the debates on Latin American modernity and postmodernity in the 1980s, followed by discussions on hybridity in anthropology, communications and cultural studies in the 1990s; and, in the United States, the Latin American Subaltern Studies group.”Arturo Escobar,“Worlds and Knowledges Otherwise,” Cultural Studies 21 (2007): 179–180. While not an official department or course of study, major sites of M/C research include the universities in the Durham-Chapel Hill area and Berkeley in the United States, and Quito, Mexico City, and Bogotá in Latin America. 5. Ibid., 180. 6. Mignolo, Local Histories/Global Designs, 18. The concept of border thinking will be expanded further in chapter 4. 7. It is important to note that center-periphery is not a spatially located phenomenon , but rather a“central order of symbols, values and beliefs.”Edward Shils, Center and Periphery: Essays in Macrosociology (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1975). The idea Sheren pages.indd 137 4/21/15 3:22 PM 138 | Notes to Pages 4–9 of center/periphery was also used by proponents of dependency theory in Latin America , which has since been challenged as the dominant paradigm for U.S.-Latin American interactions. 8. Mignolo describes the difference between the narrative of modernity (“Western civilization as a [linear] development from ancient Greece to 18th century Europe”) and that of the modern world-system (“spatial articulation of power” rather than linear). Walter D. Mignolo,“The Geopolitics of Knowledge and the Colonial Difference,”in Coloniality at Large, 228. 9. Étienne Balibar, “The Borders of Europe,” in Cosmopolitics: Thinking and Feeling beyond the Nation, eds. Peng Cheah and Bruce Robbins (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1998), 216. 10. Ibid. 11. The full text of the bill can be found at /s.1070pshs.doc.htm. 12. Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, Empire (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000), xii. 13. Ibid., 31. 14. Pico Iyer, The Global Soul: Jet Lag, Shopping Malls, and the Search for Home (New York: Knopf, 2000). 15. This latter is historian Oscar J. Martínez’s term in his book Border People: Life and Society in the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands (Tucson and London: University of Arizona Press, 1994). 16. Taylor’s work explores the inner workings of the U.S. Border Patrol from a photojournalistic perspective. His 2011 book, Working the Line, is a collection of photographs of the 276 obelisk boundary markers, as well as his interactions with the Border Patrol. (accessed Feb­ruary 17, 2011). 17. Roderick J. Lawrence, “The Multidimensional Nature of Boundaries: An Integrative Historical Perspective,” in Setting Boundaries: The Anthropology of Spatial and Social Organization, ed. Deborah Pellow (Westport, CT: Bergin and Garvey, 1996), 15. 18. The concepts of “boundary” and its companion, “territoriality,” have been widely studied in other disciplines, especially sociology and history. Territoriality, according to legal theorist Robert David Sack, is “a spatial strategy to affect, influence, or control resources and people, by controlling area; and, as a strategy, territoriality can be turned on and off . . . a form of spatial behavior.”From Robert David Sack, Human Territoriality: Its Theory and History (Cambridge: Cambridge...


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