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203 Notes 1. Constructing Rural Literacies: Moving Beyond the Rhetorics of Lack, Lag, and the Rosy Past 1. See Corby Kummer’s “Principled Pork” in the September 2004 Atlantic Monthly and “The Unsustainability of Sustainability” by Bill Devall at . 2. The President’s Council on Sustainable Development goals read as follows: Goal 1: Health and the Environment. Ensure that every person enjoys the benefits of clean air, clean water, and a healthy environment at home, at work, and at play. Goal 2: Economic Prosperity. Sustain a healthy U.S. economy that grows sufficiently to create meaningful jobs, reduce poverty, and provide the opportunity for a high quality of life for all in an increasingly competitive world. Goal 3: Equity. Ensure that all Americans are afforded justice and have the opportunity to achieve economic, environmental, and social wellbeing . Goal 4: Conservation of Nature. Use, conserve, protect, and restore natural resources—land, air, water, and biodiversity—in ways that help ensure long-term social, economic, and environmental benefits for ourselves and future generations. Goal 5: Stewardship. Create a widely held ethic of stewardship that strongly encourages individuals, institutions, and corporations to take full responsibility for the economic, environmental, and social consequences of their actions. Goal 6: Sustainable Communities. Encourage people to work together to create healthy communities where natural and historic resources are preserved, jobs are available, sprawl is contained, neighborhoods are secure , education is lifelong, transportation and health care are accessible, and all citizens have opportunities to improve the quality of their lives. Goal 7: Civic Engagement. Create full opportunity for citizens, businesses , and communities to participate in and influence the natural resource, environmental, and economic decisions that affect them. Goal 8: Population. Move toward stabilization of U.S. population. Goal 9: International Responsibility. Take a leadership role in the development and implementation of global sustainable development policies, standards of conduct, and trade and foreign policies that further the achievement of sustainability. Goal 10: Education. Ensure that all Americans have equal access to education and lifelong learning opportunities that will prepare them for meaningful work, a high quality of life, and an understanding of the concepts involved in sustainable development. 3. It is worth noting that Owens’s definition of sustainability takes aim at the consumerist culture typical of urban and suburban lifestyles, not traditional rural lifestyles where small farmers or others living close to the land engage in sustainable practices that come from long-established intergenerational land stewardship practices. However, Owens’s definition is still a powerful one, as many rural areas have fallen into or embraced the kinds of consumerist lifestyles and unsustainable farming practices endorsed by neoliberal rhetorics of economic development. 4. The relationship between “norm” and “ideal” is important; in the case of literacy, both concepts have been used to categorize those who either lie outside the norm or fall woefully short of the ideal. Davis writes that the “norm,” as statistically identified, can itself become a kind of wished-for ideal. In addition, reaching for high ideals is seen as a mechanism to elevate further the “norm.” 5. This quote is attributed to Captain Richard Henry Pratt, who founded one of the first boarding schools, Carlisle Indian School, in Pennsylvania in 1879. 6. This quote is attributed to Commissioner of Indian Affairs T. J. Morgan. 7. For a discussion of problems specific to implementing NCLB in rural schools, see Cynthia Reeves’s “Implementing the No Child Left Behind Act: Implications for Rural Schools and Districts,” published on the Web site of the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory, . 2. Rhetorics and Realities: The History and Effects of Stereotypes about Rural Literacies 1. Appalachian English as some sort of semi-preserved Elizabethan English and as one unified dialect has long since been disproved. See Michael Montgomery ’s essay “In the Appalachians They Speak Like Shakespeare.” 2. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, between 1870 and 1900, the overall illiteracy rate in the United States, defined as the “percentage of persons 14 years old and over who were . . . unable to read or write in any language,” was nearly halved, from 20.0 to 10.7 percent. Most of this improvement came from the education of newly freed blacks and others identified as “non-white” (79.9 percent to 44.5 percent). The real issue in raising literacy Notes to Pages 2–41 204 rates at this time was the education of freed blacks instead of literacy missions to largely white Appalachia (U.S. Department of Commerce, Historical...


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