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Notes L Introduction 1. Elbert W. Harrington, Rhetoric and the Scientific Method ofInquiry: A Study ofInvention (Boulder: Univ. of Colorado Press, 1948), p. 2. 2. Robert Scott et al., "Report of the Committee on the Nature of Rhetorical Invention," in The Prospect ofRhetoric: Report ofthe National Development Project, ed. Lloyd F. Bitzer and Edwin Black (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1971), p. 236. 3. Scott et al., p. 229. 4. This rhetorical approach is employed in, for example, S. Michael Halloran 's "The Birth of Molecular Biology: An Essay in the Rhetorical Criticism of Scientific Discourse," Rhetoric Review, 3 (September 1984), 70-83. 5. Richard E. Young, "Invention: A Topographical Survey," in Teaching Composition: Ten Bibliographical Essays, ed. Gary Tate (Fort Worth: Texas Christian Univ. Press, 1979), p. 17. 6. Linda Flower and John R. Hayes, "The Cognition of Discovery: Defining a Rhetorical Problem," College Composition and Communication, :n (February 1980): 21. 7. Ray Bradbury, quoted by Richard Young, Alton Becker, and Kenneth Pike in Rhetoric: Discovery and Change (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1970), p. 82. 8. Clarence A. Andrews, Technical and Business Writing (Boston: Houghton ~1iffiin Company, 1975). 9. Herman M. Weisman, Basic Technical Writing, 4th ed. (Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill Publishing Company, 1980), p. 114. 10. Francis Bacon, The Works of Francis Bacon, ed. James Spedding, Robert L. Ellis, and Douglas D. Heath (New York: Hurd and Houghton, 1869, 1963), vol. 6, pp. 268-69. On this point, Elizabeth Eisenstein quotes from E. Harris Harbison's The Christian Scholar in 144 Notes to Pages 7-13 the Age ofthe Reformation: "Throughout the patristic and medieval periods , the quest for truth is thought of as the recovery of what is embedded in tradition ... rather than the discovery of what is new," in The Printing Press as an Agent ofChange vol. 1, (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1979). 11. Peter B. Medawar, Advice to a Young Scientist (New York: Harper & Row, 1979), p. 75. 12. Scott et al., pp. 235-36. 13. Douglas Park, "Theories and Expectations: On Conceiving Composition and Rhetoric as a Discipline," College English, 41 (September 1979): 52, 54. 2. A Platonic View ofRhetorical Invention 1. Martin Bubet, I and Thou, trans. Walter Kaufman (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1970), p. 115. 2. Lawrence W. Rosenfield, "An Autopsy of the Rhetorical Tradition," in The Prospect of Rhetoric, ed. Lloyd Bitzer and Edwin Black (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1971), p. 68. Rosenfield cites TheRepublic , pp. 491-96, 532-34; Theatetus, pp. and the cave allegory as instances in which the aspiring philosopher is said to reject public discourse and proceed on a lonely inner search for a transcendent reality. 3. Plato, Phaedrus, trans. W. C. Helmbold and W. G. Rabinowitz (Indianapolis : Bobbs-Merrill, 1977), pp. 30~32. 4. In choosing the term "Platonic invention," I considered and rejected other ways to designate a radically individualistic view ofinvention. For example, "Nco-Platonic" brings with it unwanted associations with the Renaissance Neo-Platonists and others who fused with Plato certain mystical and religious elements. "Ron1anticism," another candidate which I rejected, clearly accents the individual as a unique and isolated discoverer of ideas, but its identification with the nineteenth century could imply that the individualistic emphasis dates back only to that point. It seems more appropriate to romanticism as a manifestation of an earlier individualistic tradition, one which has continued on to influence twentieth century literary and rhetorical theory. 5. Ralph Waldo Emerson, "The Poet," in American Literature: Tradition and Innovation, voL 1, ed. Harrison Meserole, Walter Sutton, and Brom Weber (Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath and Co., 1969), p. 1010. 6. Ralph Waldo Emerson, "Self Reliance," in Meserole, Sutton, and Weber,pp. 976,979. 7. Charles Yarnoff, "Contemporary Theories of Invention in the Rhetori- Notes to Pages 14-16 145 cal Tradition," College English, 41 (January 1980): 553. Subsequent ref~ erences are cited in the text. 8. Frank J. D'Angelo, Process and Thought in Composition, 2nd. ed. (Cambridge, MA: Winthrop, 1980), p. 34. Some of the theorists such as D'Angelo and Elbow, mentioned in this chapter to illustrate Platonic notions, do also attend to certain social aspects ofinventing, as is shown in the continuum in chapter 4. 9. Frank J. D'Angelo, A Conceptual Theory ofRhetoric (Cambridge, MA: Winthrop, 1975), p. 53. lO. Gordon D. Rohman and Albert 0. Wlecke. Pre-Writing: The Construction and Application ofModels for Concept Formation in Writing, U. S. Office of Education Cooperative Research Project No. 2174, (East...


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