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The Artifacts: SIX Ceramic, Stone, Bone, Shell, and Metal This chapter describes and analyzes,in raw material categories, additional man-made remains from the Rivas excavations. The Rivas pottery has been studied in the preceding chapter, with the exception of certain peculiar or altered ceramic artifacts, such as figurines, spindle whorls, net sinkers, etc. In addition to the ceramic artifacts, Chapter Sixoutlines and organizes ground and chipped stone, aswell as bone, shell, and metal objects. These artifacts are described with information on their contexts and chronological position (where the latter is available). Combination of the ceramic industries or complexes , with the artifact complexes described herein, will result in broader, temporal assemblages which we shall discuss and review in Part 4. Ceramic Artifacts Handmade Figurines and Figurine Fragments (Solid Variety) (28) There were only 2 complete, solid, hand-modelled figurines found from the Rivas work of 1959-1961; however, there were some 12 torso or head fragments and 14 limb (arm, leg, feet) fragments. The only Aviles phase figurine fragment recovered was a very badly preserved, battered torso. Little can be said of the fragment asit lacked all limbs and its head. It was, however, solid, unslipped, and was originally a seated figurine. The fragment was removed from Pit 5 of siteJ-RI-3. A San Jorge phase figurine came from site J-RI-3, Pit 5. It wasa fat (7 cm. across), globular torso fragment which wasagain missingall limbs and a head (Fig. 119a). Breasts were modelled and raised, suggesting a female representation. A series of consecutive,applique pellets looped across the top of the torso apparently represent a necklace of some kind. Incised lines on the lap area hint at a (grass?) loin cloth, while a single vertical groove delineates the buttocks. The fragment wasmade of a coarse, sandy paste and apparently wasnever slipped. Also from Zoned Bichrome Period contexts came 1whole seated figurine (5.6 cm. long) with legs outstretched (but partially broken 257 258 Archaeology of the Rivas Region, Nicaragua Fig. 119. Ceramic Artifacts: Handmade figurines (solid variety) (reduced to 87 per cent). The Artifacts: Ceramic, Stone, Bone, Shell, and Metal 259 off), arms curved to the chest, and ear spools represented (Fig. 119b). The mouth is a simple, appliqued and grooved piece; the nose appears to have been appliqued. The eyes are missingbut on one side of the face there is a slight depression, apparently left from the previously appliqued bean that undoubtedly served as an eye. A narrow hole runs through the figurine's neck area, suggesting that the piece may have been hung (perhaps on a necklace?). The figurine, found in Pit 5 of J-RI-5, and dating to the SanJorge phase, was unslipped, like all of the others associated with the Zoned Bichrome levels. One crudely modelled figurine head wasfound in the lowermost level of Pit 4 at siteJ-RI-3, along with half a dozen plain sherds. The preceding stratigraphic level in the excavation wasof SanJorge date. The figurine head had been scraped rather than appliqued to produce the desired facial features (Fig. 119c). Eyebrows,eyes,nose, and mouth are alldone in light relief. Atop the head are 2 holes, punched through while the clay was still soft, and probably while the face was being modelled. These 2 small holes enter into a larger impression poked into the back of the figurine head by a finger jab. More than likely the holes were for cord attachment. Two related figurine head fragments were found from the upper levelsof Pit 1atJ-RI-3. One of these isa "bug-eyed" piecewith a cap, and quite similar to the piece just described, including the scraped and modelled facial features and the pair of holes in the top of the head for suspension (Fig. 119d). The second fragment has appliqued, grooved, coffee-bean type eyes and mouth, applique nose and suggestions of earplugs (Fig. 119e). On this last piece there are indications of sawing (string sawing?) under the chin, hinting that the head may have been purposely removed. Neither of the figurine heads had any evidence of a slip or painting. Early Polychrome Period figurines and fragments were more numerous. There was 1 whole figurine, 7 cm. long, found in direct association with a miniature (toy?) tecomate, also red slipped, in Pit 4 of site J-RI-5 (San Roque phase). The figurine, the best preserved of the solid specimens from Rivas, was apparently meant to be a reclining figure,with feet outstretched (Fig. 120a). It...


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