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Contents Figures xv Tables xix Plates xxi Foreword by Gordon R. Willey xxiii Preface xxv Nicaragua: A Prospectus 1 ONE Introduction 3 TWO The Biogeographical Setting of Nicaragua 7 Geography of the Rivas Region 10 The Geology 10 The Climate 11 The Flora and Soils 12 The Fauna 15 A Comment on the Archaeological Faunal Remains 16 THREE A Brief History of the Culture Subarea 19 Early Ethnohistoric Accounts 19 The Ancient Nicarao of Rivas 24 Previous Archaeological Research in Nicaragua 31 Archaeology of the Rivas Region FOUR The Archaeological Sites 37 Site Designations 37 2 ix Archaeology of the Rivas Region, Nicaragua Excavation Procedures 37 Site Descriptions 40 J-RI-l:Isla del Purgatorio 40 J-RI-2:Ingenio Dolores 41 J-RI-3: Puerto San Jorge 41 J-RI-4:Santa Isabel "A" 49 J-RI-5:Santa Isabel "B" 57 J-RI-6: Palmar 64 J-RI-7:Cruz 65 Cultural Remains of Rivas and their 3 Interpretation FIVE The Ceramics of Rivas 77 Introduction 77 The Rivas Ceramic Classification 77 The Rivas Ceramic Types 88 Apompua Modelled:Apompua Variety 88 Bocana Incised Bichrome:Bocana Variety 91 Casares Black and Red-Banded Polychrome:Casares Variety 93 Castillo Engraved:Castillo Variety 97 Chavez White-on-Red:Chavez Variety 104 Combo Colander: Variety Unspecified 113 Espinoza Red-Banded:Espinoza Variety 115 Garcia Ridged:Garcia Variety 118 Gonzales Polychrome:Gonzales Variety 120 Granada Polychrome:Granada Variety 125 Huila Zoned Punctate:Variety Unspecified 129 Istmo Plain:Istmo Variety 130 Lago Black Modelled:Lago Variety 133 Luna Polychrome: Luna Variety 135 Madeira Polychrome:Madeira Variety 140 Mombacho Polychrome-Incised:Mombacho Variety 146 Mora Polychrome:Mora Variety 152 Niagara Red Flanged:Variety Unspecified 154 Nicaragua Orange Engraved: Variety Unspecified 156 Obando Black-on-Red:Obando Variety 157 Obando Black-on-Red:Ubaldo Variety 160 Ometepe Red Slipped-Incised:Variety Unspecified 161 Paloma Black and Red on White Polychrome:Paloma Variety 163 Papagayo Polychrome:Papagayo Variety 167 X Contents Papagayo Polychrome:Alfredo Variety 170 Papagayo Polychrome:Blanca Variety 173 Papagayo Polychrome:Cervantes Variety 174 Papagayo Polychrome :Fonseca Variety 176 Papagayo Polychrome:Mandador Variety 178 Papagayo Polychrome:Manta Variety 183 Papagayo Polychrome:Negra Variety 185 Papagayo Polychrome:Pica Variety 186 Pataky Polychrome:Pataky Variety 188 Popoyuapa Zoned Ridged :Popoyuapa Variety 192 Potosi Applique:Potosi Variety 194 Puchor Red Slipped and Punctated :Puchor Variety 199 Puerto Black-on-Red: Puerto Variety 201 Rivas Red:Rivas Variety 205 Rivas Red:Leon Variety 209 Rosales Zoned Engraved :Rosales Variety 211 Sacasa Striated:Sacasa Variety 215 San Ramon Black-on-Red:San Ramon Variety 220 San Juano Cream: Variety Unspecified 221 Sapoa Black and Cream on Red:Sapoa Variety 223 Schettel Incised:Schettel Variety 225 Tola Trichrome:Tola Variety 227 Toya Zoned Incised:Riga Variety 232 Urcuyu White-on-Red:Urcuyu Variety 233 Urcuyu White-on-Red:Punta Variety 237 Usulutan Resist:Variety Unspecified 239 Vallejo Polychrome:Vallejo Variety 242 Velasco Black-Banded:Velasco Variety 246 Miscellaneous Ceramics 249 SIX The Artifacts: Ceramic, Stone, Bone, Shell, and Metal 257 Ceramic Artifacts 257 Handmade Figurines and Figurine Fragments (Solid Variety) 257 Handmade Figurines and Figurine Fragments (Hollow Variety) 261 Hollow Mouldmade Figurines and Figurine Fragments 262 Specially Manufactured Spindle Whorls 266 Perforated Potsherd Discs 266 Partially Drilled Potsherd Discs 268 Ceramic Discs 268 Notched Body Sherds 269 Notched Rim Sherds 270 Crack-Lacing Rim Sherds 270 Ceramic Ornaments: Single Piece Ear Spools 271 xi Archaeology of the Rivas Region, Nicaragua Ceramic Ornaments: Lip Plugs 271 Ceramic Support Rattles 271 Miscellaneous Ceramic Artifacts 272 Ground Stone Artifacts 274 Metates 274 Manos 278 Pestles 280 Celts 282 Bevelled Flat-Slate Axes(?) 283 Chipped Stone Artifacts 283 Chopper-Pounders 284 Projectile Points or Knives(?) 284 Hammer Stones 284 Chert Flakes 284 Obsidian Bladelets and Chips 285 Bone Artifacts 285 Shell Artifacts 285 Metal Artifacts 286 SEVEN "Mohammed's Paradise": The Exploitation of Faunal Resources in the Rivas Region of Nicaragua by Mary Pohl and Paul Healy 287 The Rivas Culture History A EIGHT The Rivas Sequence: Relative and Absolute Chronology 295 Introduction 295 The Rivas Periods: Relative Phase Sequence and Associated Complexes 300 Zoned Bichrome Period 300 Early Polychrome Period 301 Middle Polychrome Period 302 Late Polychrome Period 304 The Rivas Periods: Absolute Chronology 305 Zoned Bichrome Period 306 Early Polychrome Period 306 Middle Polychrome Period 308 Late Polychrome Period 309 Colonial Period 309 Summary 309 NINE Comparative Analysis: The Place of Rivas in Central American Archaeology 311 Relations within the Subarea: Rivas and Guanacaste, Costa Rica 311 xii Contents Relations between Rivas...


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