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209 Advance of Democracy Act (Advance Democratic Values, Address Nondemocratic Countries, and Enhance Democracy Act of 2007), 41 Advancing Freedom and Democracy Report, 45–46 Afghanistan, 48 Akayev, Askar: democracy frames as president of Kyrgyzstan, 16–17, 79–82; on Kyrgyzstan’s parliamentary democracy, 84; Russian support for, 17, 175n23; Tulip Revolution and the deposing of, 17, 46, 82 Ak Zhol, 15 Amnesty International, 53 Andijan massacre, 19, 48, 53 Armenia, 36 Atambayev, Almazbek, 18, 84–85, 130 authoritarian states: functions of democracy promotion frames, 28–29; power of democracy promotion discourse, 144; resonance of Chinese and Russian discursive frames with the Central Asian republics, 126; survey and focus group respondents’ views of, 104–6 autocracy: Central Asian republics and, 12; convergence and, 59, 174n9; discrediting of democratization by, 24 Azerbaijan, 36 Bakiyev, Kurmanbek: “consultative” democracy, 83; deposed from power, 18; Russian support for, 175n23; strong presidential model of democracy, 17, 82–83; US democracy promotion frame and, 46, 47; on Western-style elections, 125 Baltic states, 2, 11 Belarus, 36 Biden, Joseph, 42, 45 Bishkek, 17 Blake, Robert O., 48 Bush, George W.: framing of democracy and international democratization, 33, 39–42, 45, 46, 144, 168n18 Central Asian democracy frames: in Kyrgyzstan, 79–85; national models of democracy, 136– 37; overview, 73–74, 90–92; presidential democracy in Kazakhstan, 74–79, 91–92; Uzbek model of democracy, 19–20, 85–90, 91–92 Central Asian energy sector: European Commission and, 38; US democracy promotion frame and, 48 Central Asian republics: China’s efforts at ideological persuasion in, 59, 61–62; China’s strategic engagement with, 57–59; compatibility with the Russian and Chinese discourse frames, 123–26, 136; competing discourses of democracy in, 7–8, 134–39; concept of civil society in, 165n9; concept of “good governance,” 25; country Index 210  Index Central Asian republics (cont.) and survey demographics, 94; current political regimes, 12–21; democracy promotion as a form of discourse, 6; democratization in the early 1990s, 2, 12; EU democracy assistance, 37–39; EU democracy promotion frame and, 49–55; identifying the democracy promotion frames of, 32–33; incompatibility with Western democracy promotion frames, 129–30; increasing the effectiveness of democracy promotion in, 139–42; independence following the Soviet collapse, 11–12; ineffectiveness of the Western democracy promotion frames in, 3–5, 116–23, 134–36, 138–39; initial lack of US and EU interest in, 35; national models of democracy promoted by, 136–37; national narratives and social regulation, 93; perceived commonality with Russia, 124; power of democracy promotion discourse, 142–45; public resonance of national democracy frames, 126–31; Russian and Chinese alternatives to Western democracy promotion frames, 5, 7–8, 66–70; Russian efforts at ideological persuasion in, 59–62; Russian pursuit of influence in, 57; Russian pursuit of regional security cooperation, 71; survey and focus group methodology, 93–95; US democracy assistance, 35–37, 39; US democracy promotion frame and, 46–48; values and beliefs underlying people’s views on democracy, 109–13; Western democracy promotion frames perceived as a threat, 125. See also Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Uzbekistan China: democratic centralism and, 64; discursive frame (see Chinese discursive frame); efforts at ideological persuasion in the Central Asian republics, 59, 61–62; emphasis on economic cooperation, 72; linking of Uzbek democratic activism to terrorism, 66; modern economic restructuring and growth, 68, 69; perspectives on democracy and democratization, 59, 60, 62–66, 69–70; perspectives on economic growth and political stability, 124– 25; response to “color revolutions,” 59, 60; strategic engagement with the Central Asian republics, 57–59; Xinjiang province and, 58–59, 60 Chinese discourse frame: as an alternative to Western democracy promotion frames, 5, 7–8, 68–70; compatibility with the Central Asian republics, 136; concepts of security and order in, 71–72; identifying, 32; models of governance in, 59; perspective on economic growth and political stability, 124–25; perspectives on democracy and democratization, 59, 60, 62–66, 69–70; principle of noninterference, 59 Chinese discursive frame: concept of relationships between the state and people, 36 civil society: in Central Asian republics, 165n9; projects in democratic education, 140–41 Clinton, Bill, 40 Clinton, Hillary, 42, 48 Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO), 71 Index  211 color revolutions, 2, 19, 59–60 Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS): Anti-Terrorism Center, 71; election monitoring and, 174n24; Technical Aid to, 37 Communist People’s Party (Kazakhstan), 15 communist state: survey and focus group respondents’ views of, 104–6 Compatriots Living Abroad and International Humanitarian Cooperation (Russia), 61 consultative...

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Additional Information

ISBN
9780813160696
Related ISBN
9780813160689
MARC Record
OCLC
910326297
Pages
232
Launched on MUSE
2015-05-29
Language
English
Open Access
No
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