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159 Notes Abbreviations CIS Commonwealth of Independent States EUCAM European Union–Central Asia Monitoring ODIHR Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights OSCE Organization for Cooperation and Security in Europe SCO Shanghai Cooperation Organization USAID United States Agency for International Development Introduction 1. The Vienna Declaration and Program of Action, adopted by the World Conference on Human Rights on 25 June 1993, declared democracy a universal right and stated, “The international community should support the strengthening and promoting of democracy, development and respect of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the world.” 2. Ann Marie Clark, Elisabeth J. Friedman, and Kathryn Hochstetler, “The Sovereign Limits of Global Civil Society: A Comparison of NGO Participation in UN World Conferences on the Environment, Human Rights and Women,” World Politics 51, no. 1 (1998): 1–35; Larry Jay Diamond, Developing Democracy: Toward Consolidation (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999); Carl Gershman and Michael Allen, “The Assault on Democracy Assistance,” Journal of Democracy 17, no. 2 (2006): 36–51; Margaret Keck and Kathryn Sikkink, Activists beyond Borders (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998); Laurence Whitehead, Democratization : Theory and Experience (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002). 3. Sarah L. Henderson, “Selling Civil Society: Western Aid and the Nongovernmental Organization Sector in Russia,” Comparative Political Studies 35, no. 2 (2002): 139–67; Milada Anna Vachudova, “Democratization in Postcommunist Europe: Illiberal Regimes and the Leverage of the European Union,” in Democracy and Authoritarianism in the Postcommunist World, ed. Valerie Bunce, Michael McFaul, and Kathryn Stoner-Weiss (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 82–104; Richard Youngs, The European Union and the Promotion of Democracy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002); Richard Youngs, ed., The European Union and Democracy Promotion: A Critical Global Assessment (Washington, DC: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010). 4. Valerie J. Bunce and Sharon L. Wolchik, Defeating Authoritarian Leaders in Postcommunist Countries (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 22. 160   Notes to Pages 1–3 5. Ibid. 6. Thomas Carothers, Aiding Democracy Abroad: The Learning Curve (Washington , DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1999). 7. Sean R. Roberts, “Doing the Democracy Dance in Kazakhstan: Democracy Development as Cultural Encounter,” Slavic Review 71, no. 2 (2012): 308. 8. Michael McFaul, “Political Transitions: Democracy and the Former Soviet Union,” Harvard International Review 28, no. 1 (2006): 42; Eric McGlinchey, Chaos, Violence, Dynasty: Politics and Islam in Central Asia (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2011), 1; Lincoln A. Mitchel, Uncertain Democracy: U.S. Foreign Policy and Georgia’s Rose Revolution (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009). 9. The scholarship and practice of international democratization have produced a confusing lexicon of terms. The diverse practices of international democratization have been described as democracy promotion, democracy assistance, democracy support, political development aid, and so on. Studies of international democratization sometimes differentiate between “democracy assistance,” to denote direct and positive measures of support, and “democracy promotion,” which has a pejorative connotation of military involvement and economic conditionality . This book does not make a distinction between the two terms and uses them interchangeably. 10. Peter Burnell, “Does International Democracy Promotion Work?” (discussion paper, German Development Institute, Bonn, 2007), http://www.uni-bonn. de/~uholtz/lehrmaterial/begleit_burnell.pdf (accessed 15 August 2013). 11. The so-called Tulip Revolution in Kyrgyzstan did not substantively alter Kyrgyz patronage politics. The government of President Bakiyev, which succeeded the toppled Akayev cabinet, turned out to be even less democratic. See McGlinchey, Chaos, Violence, Dynasty. 12. Alexander Cooley, Great Games, Local Rules: The New Great Power Contest in Central Asia (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), 97. 13. McFaul, “Political Transitions”; Andrew Wilson, Virtual Politics: Faking Democracy in the Post-Soviet World (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2005). 14. Stephen Blank, “For a Transition to Democracy in Central Asia,” in Prospects for Democracy in Central Asia, ed. Birgit N. Schlyter (Istanbul: Swedish Research Institute, 2005), 3–20; Kathleen Collins, Clan Politics and Regime Transition in Central Asia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006). 15. Evgeny A. Zhovtis, “Freedom of Association and the Question of Its Realization in Kazakhstan,” in Civil Society in Central Asia, ed. M. Holt Ruffin and David Clarke Waugh (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1999), 57–70. 16. European Council, “The EU and Central Asia: Strategy for a New Partnership ,” adopted 21–22 June 2007, Brussels, /10 (accessed 13 August 2013); Sukhrobijon Ismailov and Balazs Jarabik, “The EU and Uzbekistan: Short-Term Interests versus Long-Term Engagement,” Notes to Pages 3–13  161 EUCAM Working Paper 8, 2009,


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