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INTRODUCTION 1. For a similar point, see David R. Jones, “Imperial Russia’s Forces at War,” in Military Effectiveness, ed. Allan Millett and Williamson Murray (Boston: Allen & Unwin, 1988), 1, 250. 2. John Schindler, “Steamrollered in Galicia: The Austro-Hungarian Army and the Brusilov Offensive, 1916,” War in History 23, no. 1 (2003): 32. 3. Charles Townshend, Easter 1916: The Irish Rebellion (London: Allen Lane, 2005), 337–343; Adrian Gregory, “’You Might as Well Recruit Germans’: British Public Opinion and the Decision to Conscript the Irish in 1918,” in Ireland and the Great War, ed. Adrian Gregory and Senia Paseta (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2002), 113–132. 4. Leonard V. Smith, Between Mutiny and Obedience: The Case of the French Fifth Infantry Division during World War I (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994); Leonard V. Smith, “War and ‘Politics’: The French Army Mutinies of 1917,” War in History 2, no. 2 (1995): 180–201; John Williams, Mutiny 1917 (London: Heinemann, 1962). 5. Ian F. W. Beckett, The Great War, 2nd ed. (Harlow, UK: Pearson Longman, 2007), 7. 6. John Keegan, The Mask of Command (New York: Viking, 1987). 7. Peter Gatrell, Russia’s First World War: A Social and Economic History (Harlow, UK: Pearson, 2005). 8. Winston Churchill, The Unknown War (New York: Scribner’s, 1931). 9. Nik Cornish, The Russian Army and the First World War (Stroud, UK: Spellmount , 2006); Michael P. Kihntopf, Victory in the East: The Rise and Fall of the Imperial German Army (Shippensburg, Pa.: White Mane, 2000); Michael Neiberg and David Jordan, The Eastern Front, 1914–1920 (London: Amber, 2011). Notes 315 Stone_The Russian Army in the Great War 5/19/15 9:44 AM Page 315 10. Norman Stone, The Eastern Front, 1914–1917 (New York: Scribner’s, 1975); W. Bruce Lincoln, Passage through Armageddon: The Russians in War and Revolution (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986). 11. Dennis E. Showalter, Tannenberg: Clash of Empires (Hamden, Conn.: Archon, 1991); Richard L. DiNardo, Breakthrough: the Gorlice-Tarnow Campaign, 1915 (Santa Barbara: Praeger, 2010); Graydon A. Tunstall, Blood on the Snow: The Carpathian Winter War of 1915 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2010). 12. For a detailed discussion of the problem of casualties, see Nicholas N. Golovine, The Russian Army in the World War (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1931), 45–74. 13. Stéphane Audoin-Rouzeau and Annette Becker, 14–18: Understanding the Great War (New York: Hill and Wang, 2002), 217. 14. On the general complexity of the problem for the better-documented Western Front, see James McRandle and James Quirk, “The Blood Test Revisited: A New Look at German Casualty Counts in World War I,” Journal of Military History 70, no. 3 (2006): 667–701. For Eighth Army casualties, compare reports for 1 May to 15 May 1916 (old style) and 15 May to 1 June 1916 (old style): RGVIA f. 2314, op. 2, d. 308, l. 21, and d. 303, l. 43. CHAPTER 1. THE ORIGINS OF RUSSIA’S FIRST WORLD WAR 1. The literature on the origins of the war is enormous. For good introductions to the issues, see James Joll and Gordon Martel, The Origins of the First World War, 3rd ed. (Harlow, UK: Pearson Longman, 2007), Richard F. Hamilton and Holger H. Herwig, The Origins of World War I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), and Keith Wilson, ed., Decisions for War 1914 (London: University College London Press, 1995). For an important early work arguing for German responsibility , see Luigi Albertini, The Origins of the War of 1914, 3 vols. (London: Oxford University Press, 1953). Fischer’s two books are Germany’s Aims in the First World War (New York: Norton, 1967), and War of Illusions: German Policies from 1911 to 1914 (London: Chatto and Windus, 1975). Paul Schroeder, “World War I as Galloping Gertie,” Journal of Modern History 44, no. 3 (1972): 319–345, demonstrates increasing Austrian desperation. For more accessible works arguing viewpoints essentially congruent to Fischer, see V. R. Berghahn, Germany and the Approach of War in 1914 (New York: St. Martin’s, 1973) and Samuel R. Williamson Jr., Austria-Hungary and the Origins of the First World War (London: Macmillan, 1991). A. J. P. Taylor’s The Struggle for Mastery in Europe, 1848–1918 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1954) is a useful reference for the prewar crises. 2. On Russia specifically, see D. C. B. Lieven, Russia and the Origins of the First World War (New York: St. Martin’s, 1983); David Alan Rich, “Russia,” in...


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