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Notes Introduction 1. See David M. Fahey, "Temperance and the Liberal Party-Lord Peel's Report, 1899," Journal ofBritish Studies 10 (May 1971): 151, 154-56. 2. Jose Harris, Private Lives, Public Spirit: Britain 1870-1914 (New York: Penguin Books, 1994), 4 n. 3. The Templars themselves did not adopt the terms "universalism" and "the great schism," which I use throughout this book. 4. In 1869 one Grand Lodge explained the absence of certain reports: luggage containing the papers and clothing of the Grand Worthy Secretary had been stolen at the St. Paul railway depot, according to GL of Minnesota, Proceedings (1869), n.p. (final page). 5. GL of Georgia, Proceedings (1875), 22. Even worse than official figures, private estimates could be pure invention. At the beginning of the twentieth century a South Carolinian estimated that his Grand Lodge had a hundred lodges with 4,500 members. Joel E. Brunson to the editors of the Baptist Courier, 4 Aug. 1902, cited in Frederick M. Heath and Harriett H. Kinard, "Prohibition in South Carolina, 1880-1940: An Overview," Proceedings of the South Carolina Historical Association (1980), 128 n. 3. In that year the International Supreme Lodge, Proceedings (1902), 25, reported that South Carolina had no Grand Lodge and only two working subordinate lodges. 6. Benjamin F. Parker, in RWGL, Proceedings (1886), 41. On the first mention of a person ordinarily identified by initials and surname, I provide the full first name when I know it. 1. The Templars 1. For brevity's sake, I generally call the Good Templars "the Templars ," but there were other contemporaneous organizations with similar names, such as the Templars of Honor and Temperance. 163 164 Notes to pages 6-10 2. See the chapter on the Sons of Temperance in Charles Chester Cole, Lion ofthe Forest: James B. Finley, Frontier Reformer (Lexington: Univ. Press of Kentucky, 1994). 3. Donald Weldon Beattie, "Sons ofTemperance: Pioneers in TotalAbstinence and 'Constitutional' Prohibition" (Ph.D. diss., Boston Univ., 1966). 4. The best introduction to temperance efforts in the United States is Jack S. Blocker Jr., American Temperance Movements: Cycles ofReform (Boston: Twayne, 1989). The Alcohol and Temperance History Group publishes the Social History ofAlcohol Review and sponsors an Internet Listserv group and a World Wide Web site. 5. Joseph R Gusfield, Symbolic Crusade: Status Politics and the American Temperance Movement, 2d ed., (1963; Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press, 1986); John J. Rumbarger, Profits, Power, and Prohibition: Alcohol Reform and the Industrializing ofAmerica, 1800-1930 (Albany: State Univ. of New York Press, 1989). 6. Richard J. Carwardine, Evangelicals and Politics in Antebellum America (New Haven, Conn.: Yale Univ. Press, 1993), 101-02; Curtis D. Johnson, Redeeming America: Evangelicals and the Road to Civil War (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1993), 124-34. 7. George Thompson Brake, Drink: Ups and Downs ofMethodist Attitudes to Temperance (London: Oliphants, 1974). 8. Sidsel Eriksen, "Drunken Danes and Sober Swedes: Religious Revivalism and the Temperance Movements as Keys to Danish and Swedish Folk Cultures," in Language and the Construction ofClass Identities, ed. Bo Strath (Gothenburg, Sweden: Dept. of History, Univ. of Gothenburg, 1990). 9. For a handy introduction, see Jonathan Zimmerman, "Dethroning King Alcohol: The Washingtonians in Baltimore, 1840-1845," Maryland Historical Magazine 87 (Winter 1992). See also Ruth M. Alexander, "'We Are Engaged as a Band of Sisters': Class and Domesticity in the Washingtonian Temperance Movement, 1840-1850," Journal ofAmerican History 75 (Dec. 1988). 10. W.S. Harwood, "Secret Societies in America," North American Review 164 (May 1897): 617, 620. Mary Ann Clawson, "Nineteenth-Century Women's Auxiliaries and Fraternal Orders," Signs 12 (1986): 42 n. 4, points out that "in 1910 the Masons and the Odd Fellows each had memberships of over 7 percent of the total population of adult white males of native birth." 11. Alvin J. Schmidt, Oligarchy in Fraternal Organizations (Detroit, Mich.: Gale Research, 1973). 12. Mary Ann Clawson, Constructing Brotherhood: Class, Gender, and Fraternalism (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Press, 1989); Mark C. Carnes, Secret Ritual and Manhood in Victorian America (New Haven, Conn.: Yale Univ. Press, 1989); Anthony D. Fels, "The Square and Compass: San Francisco 's Freemasons and American Religion, 1870-1900" (Ph.D. diss., Stanford Univ. 1987); Lynn Dumenil, Freemasonry and American Culture, 1880-1930 (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Press, 1984). See also Christopher J. Anstead , "Fraternalism in Victorian Ontario: Secret Societies and Cultural Hegemony" (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Western Ontario, 1992); the review of Carnes's book by Peter N. Stearns in Journal ofRitual Studies...


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