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ered by the heavy earth mantle which extended over the mound core. From this cremation, charcoal Sample V38 was taken for radiocarbon dating. It was measured by W. F. Libby to be 2,169 ┬▒ 175 years. This would seem to indicate that after the great ceremonial fire had been made on the top of the mound core, considerable time elapsed during which burial and building at this mound site were discontinued. At the close of this period of inact\vity, Burial 55 may have been laid on the forest floor at the edge of the mound, and shortly thereafter the large mantle of earth put over all. SKELETAL MATERIAL The skeletal remains of some 60 individuals from 55 excavated burial places make up the series from the Dover Mound. These can be grouped by age and sex as: adult men-21; adult women-9; adults of indeterminate sex-1 0; youths of indeterminate sex-2; children of indeterminate sex-6; persons of indeterminate age and sex-12. For the most part, these remains are extremely fragmentary. The rather sandy nature of the mound fill as well as the collapsed condition of the tombs worked in conjunction with the usual processes of decomposition. Nevertheless, some very well preserved individual bones are present, and in some cases within the same skull there are varying degrees of preservation from the most friable bone to that of a "fresh" nature-strong and elastic. In these instances the burial position, fully extended on the back with the bottom of the grave a source of decomposing tissue in the natural course of time and events, may account for this range of bone condition. Table 2 classifies the remains of the Dover burials by sex and age as far as their fragmentary nature permits. The high incidence of the remains of men is probably attributable to two factors. First, the more rugged and heavier nature of male bones tends to withstand the ravages of time better than the lighter, more delicate bones of the average female. Secondly-and there is much evidence to support the view-these Adena mound burials are of a highly select group, with men predominating. From the point of view of the individual census, Burials 5-6 are 27 28 Fig. 14. Front and side views of the skull of Burial 10, a typical adult male. perhaps the most interesting and unusual. The cremated remains of at least four persons were comingled in what is believed to be a crematory in situ. In the field the entire cremation, consisting of charcoal, ash, and thoroughly calcined fragments of the four individuals , was carefully scooped up, placed in containers, and brought in to the museum laboratory. There all of the material was carefully screened twice through fine-meshed sieves. The fine ash dust was discarded. The charcoal and bone fragments were separated and studied apart. The physical anthropologist made first a rough sorting, separating the identifiable fragments of skull, backbone, long bone, and other bone into separate boxes. All of the material was gone over repeatedly, so that it can be stated that all recognizable fragments of any size at all were identified by the specific particular bone. From these firehardened identifiable fragments, it was possible to isolate the remains of two men, one younger and one older, and the remains of two infants, one older than the other. No. l 2 3 4 7 10 11 12 13 14 15 Sex ?Male ?:\ifale ?Male ?Female Male Male ?:\ifale ?Male Male Male ?Female Male :Vfale ?Female Male Female Male Table 2- BURIAL CENSUS Age A.dult? Adult Young adult 18-20 yrs. Adolescent 16-1 H yrs. Young adult 23 yrs. Adult 30+ yrs. Child 3-5 yrs. Infant 2-3 yrs. Adult Young adult Adult 35-40 yrs. Young adult 20 yrs. Adult 30? yrs. Young adult 19-20 yrs. Young adult Young adult┬▒ 26 yrs. Young adult 23-24 yrs. Young adult Remarks Cremation redeposited (few fragments). Cremation to the lower limb bones (at waist). Hips. Only tooth fragments present. Bones lay coated with red ocher. Large, long-rooted teeth. Very fragmented thin skull, occipital very flat. Neck bones and few long bone fragments. Dog mandible present. Yz skull repaired. Large male with prominent bilateral chin. Smaller, older man with arthritis. (Figs. 13 and 22-28.) Crown of the skull flattened. Skull fragments. Red ocher and black-stained bone. Left foot and lower end of tibia. All fragments blackstained . Large man with rugged...


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