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Notes Abbreviations Cab Files of the Cabinet Office, Public Record Office, London FO Files of the Foreign Office, Public Record Office, London IC Files of International Conferences, Public Record Office, London IWC Imperial War Cabinet records (in Cab) MPC Man-Power Committee records (in Cab) RG Record Group, National Archives, Washington, D.C. WC War Cabinet records (in Cab) WO Files of the War Office, Public Record Office, London WPC War Policy Committee records (in Cab) WWP Arthur Link, ed., The Papers of Woodrow Wilson, vols. 30-51 (Princeton, 1979-85) Prologue 1. Foster Rhea Dulles, America's Rise to World Power, 1898-1954 (New York, 1963). 2. See, e.g., Kathleen Burk, Britain, America, and the Sinews of War, 1914-1918 (Boston, 1985); Lloyd C. Gardner, Safe for Democracy: The Anglo-American Response to Revolution, 1913-1923 (New York, 1984); W.B. Fowler, British-American Relations 1917-1918: The Role of Sir William Wiseman (Princeton, N.J., 1969); Sterling J. Kernek, Distractions of Peace during War: The Lloyd George Government's Reactions to Woodrow Wilson, December 1916-Novemberl918 (Philadelphia, 1975); Edward B. Parsons, Wilsonian Diplomacy: AlliedAmerican Rivalries in War and Peace (St. Louis, 1978); Laurence W. Martin, Peace without Victory: Woodrow Wilson and the British Liberals (New Haven, Conn., 1958). 3. See David F. Trask, Captains & Cabinets: Anglo-American Naval Relations, 19171918 (Columbia, Mo., 1972): and Trask, The United States in the Supreme War Council: American War Aims and Inter-Allied Strategy, 1917-1918 (Middletown, Conn., 1961). 1. From Rapprochement to the House-Grey Memorandum 1. For an informed discussion of Great Britain as the "preeminent great power" in 1914, see Keith Neilson, " 'Greatly Exaggerated': The Myth of the Decline of Great Britain before 1914," International History Review, November 1991, pp. 695-725. 2. During the summer of 1916 the United States did sign a treaty with Denmark to purchase the Virgin Islands in order to prevent Germany from utilizing these strategic islands as a submarine base. 3. A.E. Campbell, Great Britain and the United States, 1895-1903 (Westport, Conn., 1974), p. 195. 222 Notes to Pages 6-11 4. P.A.R. Calvert, "Great Britain and the New World, 1905-1914," in British Foreign Policy under Sir Edward Grey, ed. F. H. Hinsley (Cambridge, 1977), p. 383. 5. Zara S. Steiner, Britain and the Origins of the First World War (New York, 1977), p. 12. 6. Robert A. Huttenback, The British Imperial Experience (New York, 1966), p. 90. 7. Avner Offer, The First World War: An Agrarian Interpretation (Oxford, 1989), p. 90. 8. Bradford Perkins, The Great Rapprochement: England and the United States, 18951914 (New York, 1968), p. 7. 9. For a standard "realist" critique of American foreign policy, see Hans J. Morgenthau , In Defense of the National Interest: A Critical Examination ofAmerican Foreign Policy (New York, 1951). 10. Norman A. Graebner, Foundations ofAmerican Foreign Policy: A Realistic Appraisal from Franklin to McKinley (Wilmington, Del., 1985), p. 314. 11. Ibid., p. 354. 12. Quoted in Arthur S. Link, Wilson the Diplomatist: A Look at His Major Foreign Policies (New York, 1974), p. 5. 13. Ibid., p. 10. 14. WWP, 30:307. 15. For a recent revisionist work on Wilson's pro-British sympathies and their effect on American neutrality, see John W. Coogan, The End of Neutrality: The United States, Britain, and Maritime Rights, 1899-1915 (Ithaca, N.Y., 1981). Wilson's views toward the British government, however, underwent a dramatic change in 1916. 16. Herbert Bruce Brougham, "Memorandum of Interview with the President," 14 December 1914, WWP, 31:458-59. 17. Woodrow Wilson, "An Appeal to the American People," 18 August 1914, WWP, 30:394. 18. To defend Wilson against criticism from the realistic school of thought, Link argues that the president's idealism was in reality a form of "higher realism" in foreign affairs; see Link, "The Higher Realism of Woodrow Wilson," Journal of Presbyterian History, March 1963, pp. 1-13. 19. For a perceptive analysis of America's emerging economic power, see Paul M. Kennedy, "The First World War and the International Power System," in Military Strategy and the Origins ofthe First World War: An International Security Reader, ed. Steven E. Miller (Princeton, 1985), pp. 7-40. 20. See Frederick S. Calhoun, Power and Principle: Armed Intervention in Wilsonian Foreign Policy (Kent, Ohio, 1986), pp. 30-31. See also the succinct summary in Daniel M. Smith, "Robert Lansing, 1915-1920," in An Uncertain Tradition: American Secretaries ofState in the Twentieth Century, ed. Norman A...


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