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APPENDIX Introduction TABLE A1 Women and minority appeals court judges through 2008, by circuit FEMALE JUDGES AFRICAN AMERICAN OR HISPANIC JUDGES First Circuit Sandra Lynch (Clinton, 1995) Juan Torruella (Reagan, 1984) Second Circuit Amalya Kearse* (Carter, 1979) Rosemary Pooler (Clinton, 1998) Sonia Sotomayor* (Clinton, 1998) Reena Raggi (G. W. Bush, 2002) Debra Livingston (G. W. Bush, 2007) Thurgood Marshall (JFK, 1962) Amalya Kearse* (Carter, 1979) Lawrence Pierce (Reagan, 1981) Sonia Sotomayor* (Clinton, 1998) Jose Cabranes (Clinton, 1994) Barrington Parker (G. W. Bush, 2001) Third Circuit Dolores Sloviter (Carter, 1979) Carol Mansmann (Reagan, 1985) Jane Roth (G. H. W. Bush, 1991) Marjorie Rendell (Clinton, 1997) Maryanne Barry (Clinton, 1999) William H. Hastie (Truman, 1950) A. Leon Higginbotham (Carter, 1977) Timothy Lewis (G. H. W. Bush, 1992) Theodore McKee (Clinton, 1994) Julio Fuentes (Clinton, 2000) 138 APPENDIX Fourth Circuit Karen Williams (G. H. W. Bush, 1992) Diana Motz (Clinton, 1994) Allyson Duncan* (G. W. Bush, 2003) Roger Gregory (Clinton/Bush, 2001) Allyson Duncan* (G. W. Bush, 2003) Fifth Circuit Carolyn King (Carter, 1979) Phyllis Kravitch (Carter, 1979, after 1980, 11th) Edith Jones (Reagan, 1985) Edith Clement (G. W. Bush, 2001) Priscilla Owen (G. W. Bush, 2005) Jennifer Elrod (G. W. Bush, 2007) Catharina Haynes (G. W. Bush, 2008) Reynaldo Garza (Carter, 1979) Joseph Hatchett (Carter, 1979, after 1980, 11th) Carl Stewart (Clinton, 1994) Emilio Garza (G. H. W. Bush, 1991) Fortunato Benevides (Clinton, 1994) Edward Prado (G. W. Bush, 2003) Sixth Circuit Florence Allen (FDR, 1934) Cornelia Kennedy (Carter, 1979) Alice Batchelder (G. H. W. Bush, 1991) Martha Daughtrey (Clinton, 1993) Karen Moore (Clinton, 1995) Julia Gibbons (G. W. Bush, 2002) Deborah Cook (G. W. Bush, 2003) Susan Neilson (G. W. Bush, 2005) Helene White (G. W. Bush, 2008) Wade McCree (Johnson, 1966) Damon Keith (Carter, 1977) Nathaniel Jones (Carter, 1979) Ransey Guy Cole (Clinton, 1995) Eric Clay (Clinton, 1997) Seventh Circuit Ilana Rovner (G. H. W. Bush, 1992) Diane Wood (Clinton, 1995) Ann Williams* (Clinton, 1999) Diane Sykes (G. W. Bush, 2004) Ann Williams* (Clinton, 1999) Eighth Circuit Diana Murphy (Clinton, 1994) Theodore McMillan (Carter, 1978) Lavenski Smith (G. W. Bush, 2002) Ninth Circuit Shirley Hufstedler (Johnson, 1968) Betty Fletcher (Carter, 1979) Arthur Alarcon (Carter, 1979) Jerome Farris (Carter, 1979) TABLE A1 continued FEMALE JUDGES AFRICAN AMERICAN OR HISPANIC JUDGES APPENDIX 139 TABLE A1 continued FEMALE JUDGES AFRICAN AMERICAN OR HISPANIC JUDGES Dorothy Nelson (Carter, 1979) Mary Schroeder (Carter, 1979) Cynthia Hall (Reagan, 1984) Pamela Rymer (G. H. W. Bush, 1989) Susan Graber (Clinton, 1997) Margaret McKeown (Clinton, 1998) Kim Wardlaw* (Clinton, 1998) Marsha Berzon (Clinton, 2000) Johnnie Rawlinson* (Clinton, 2000) Consuelo Callahan* (G. W. Bush, 2003) Sandra Ikuta (G. W. Bush, 2006) Cecil Poole (Carter, 1979) Ferdinand Fernandez (G. H. W. Bush, 1989) Kim Wardlaw*(Clinton, 1998) Johnnie Rawlinson* (Clinton, 2000) Richard Paez (Clinton, 2000) Consuelo Callahan* (G. W. Bush, 2003) Carlos Bea (G. W. Bush, 2003) Tenth Circuit Stephanie Seymour (Carter, 1979) Deannell Tacha (Reagan, 1985) Mary Briscoe (Clinton, 1995) Carlos Lucero (Clinton, 1995) Jerome Holmes (G. W. Bush, 2006) Eleventh Circuit Phyllis Kravitch (Carter, transferred from Fifth, 1981) Susan Black (G. H. W. Bush, 1992) Rosemary Barkett (Clinton, 1994) Frank Hull (Clinton, 1997) Joseph Hatchett (Carter, transferred from Fifth, 1981) Charles Wilson (Clinton, 1999) D.C. Circuit Patricia Wald (Carter, 1979) Ruth Ginsburg (Carter, 1980) Karen Henderson (G. H. W. Bush, 1990) Judith Rogers* (Clinton, 1994) Janice Brown* (G. W. Bush, 2005) Spottswood Robinson (Johnson, 1966) Harry Edwards (Carter, 1979) Clarence Thomas (G. H. W. Bush, 1990) Judith Rogers* (Clinton, 1994) Janice Brown* (G. W. Bush, 2005) Note: *Denotes female minority judge. TABLE A2 Indicators and data sources INDICATORS ATTRIBUTES DATABASE/ SOURCE Judge level Race African American; Latino; White; Asian American Federal Judicial Center Gender Female/ Male Federal Judicial Center Race and gender White male; White female; African American male; African American female; Latino male; Latina female; Asian American male Federal Judicial Center Nontraditional judge Minority and/or female judge Federal Judicial Center Appointment information Year of confirmation; Identity of appointing president Federal Judicial Center Age Year born Federal Judicial Center Ideology Judicial Common Space score- – higher scores indicate more conservative views Epstein et al. (2007), updated Ideological extremism Absolute value of Judicial Common Space score Epstein et al. (2007), updated Case level Policy outcome Whether majority opinion advocates a liberal, conservative, or mixed policy (or cannot be coded in liberal/ conservative dimension) MultiUser Database; Epstein, Landes, and Posner (2013) Mixed treatment Affirmed/ reversed in part MultiUser Database Mixed policy Policy advocated in opinion is mixed between liberal...


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