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Bibliographical Notes THE BEST sources for the muckraking movement are periodicals. Until the availability of manuscript resources in recent years, scholars have concentrated their studies on these magazines. Serials, often edited before appearing in book form, must be read in the journals, in context, before their full impact can be realized. Unfortunately, most bound volumes, those of McClure's and the American, omit the exciting advertising pages. The Index to McClure's Magazine; Volume I to XVIII (New York, 1903) is helpful in tracing articles through the Spring of 1902, and the ably edited Review of Reviews is helpful in the same respect for the whole of muckraking literature. McClure's Magazine from 1893 to 1911 and The American Magazine from 1906 to 1915 are the best sources for following the public thought of the McClure's group. Since McClure permitted his writers to publish often in other journals, these other articles must be inspected. Other useful journals have been the St. Nicholas, Dial, Chautauquan , Munsey's, Collief s, Cosmopolitan, Century, Scribnefs, and The American Magazine. The Knox Stu­ dent from McClure's student days throughout the Progres­ sive period contains much valuable information, as do the Knox Alumnus and The Wheelman. Newspapers, perhaps because of professional jealousies, are not always trustworthy. But the most valuable journals include the Galesburg Evening Mail, the Galesburg Daily Mail, The Bureau County Republican, the Belleville Daily Advocate, the Chicago Record, and the New York Times. Several additional papers are useful primarily for constructing a view of the public response to muckraking. These include the New York Tribune, the Philadelphia North American, the New York Sun, the New York Herald, and the Emporia Gazette. John Phillips' articles in the Goshen Independent Republican before World War II are B I B L I O G R A P H I C A L N O T E S an untapped source of information on the history of McClure 's articles. Recently available manuscript sources permit a new as­ sessment of the muckraking movement. One of the most helpful collections is the Ray Stannard Baker Papers at the Library of Congress. Numerous journals and notebooks exhibit that sensitive journalist's wide experience with the leading Progressives, and, when carefully used, reveal a subjective reasoning that later was transformed into either muckraking articles or David Grayson fiction. The Wil­ liam Allen White Papers, also at the Library of Congress, are hardly as valuable for this period as the Baker Papers, since they deal principally with correspondence of the Gazette. Smaller collections of note at this same repository are those of Brand Whitlock, Finley Peter Dunne, Mark Sullivan, and Edwin Markham. The principal value of these collections is to show how the magazine's activities appeared to men not intimately connected with it. The Al­ bert J. Beveridge Papers, the Theodore Roosevelt Papers, and the Booker T. Washington Papers were used to verify certain points. The Lincoln Steffens Papers at Columbia University are stronger for the journalist's later career than for the muck­ raking period. Yet they are especially valuable as a check upon the authenticity of his autobiography. The published letters of Steffens do not always agree with the manuscripts. In fact, Steffens' almost illegible handwriting might well explain why some letters were abridged in those volumes. His unpublished manuscripts on "Ethics and Evolution" are in this collection. The Frederick Bancroft Papers, also at Columbia, shed light on McClure's continual concern with the Civil War. The Edmund Clarence Stedman Papers reveal much of the personality of Viola Roseboro'. The Thomas S. Jones, Jr. Papers, the Stephen Crane Papers, and the Allan Nevins Papers supply information for peripheral points. B I B L I O G R A P H I C A L N O T E S The John H. Finley Papers, at the New York Public Library, relate to a later period; nonetheless they allow the young academician's considerable role in muckraking to be evaluated. In the same library a few items from the Tarbell Papers relate to McClure's bizarre behavior in 1904. The library also has possession of one of McClure's manu­ scripts, "The Science of Political and Industrial Self-Organization ," written about 1933. This document is the mus­ ings of an old man, but in some instances it gives insights into certain phases of McClure's thought during the muck­ raking period. Wagner College possesses the considerable and wellarranged Edwin Markham Papers. Not only do these docu­ ments...


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