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CHAPTER FOUR Peace through Research: The Great Foundations BY 1910 efficiency had become the new watchword of the peace movement in the United States. With the international lawyers equating the peace movement with expedient American foreign policy and the businessmen describing it in terms of "hardheaded practicality," the movement had largely effaced the taint of utopianism. The new "establishment" status of the movement was epitomized by the New York Peace Society, with its success­ ful enlistment of men of wealth, influence, and prestige. "A New York Peace Society dinner looks like a banquet of the Chamber of Commerce," wrote Frederick Lynch in 1911. In describing the composition of the New York Peace Society, its secretary, William H. Short, stressed the role of jurists, captains of industry, kings of finance, and women of social prominence.1 Power and prestige brought to the peace movement a height­ ened sense of expectation, a sense of being on the verge of an era of great advance. As opportunities for real effectiveness seemed to beckon, old organizations bestirred themselves and new ones emerged. The new, more prominent leaders of the movement be­ gan to demand a consolidation of peace forces and other efficiencies of method appropriate to a realistic reform that had forsaken impractical idealism and had now arrived at its appointed time. New leaders in the peace movement agreed that fundamental to the reshaping of the movement for efficiency was the adoption of a "scientific" approach. To some of them, "scientific" meant merely "businesslike" or "unsentimental." But others defined their objective more specifically as the search for the causes and cures of war through research based upon the model of the natural sci­ ences and the emerging social sciences. The prevention of war, !Frederick Lynch, The Peace Problem: The Task of the Twentieth Century (New York 1911), PP- 81-82; Frederick Lynch, "The Minister in Association with International Movements," in Charles S. Macfarland, ed., The Christian Ministry and the Social Order (New Haven 1909), p. 301; Proceedings of the Second National Peace Congress (Chicago 1909), p. 365 (hereafter cited as Chicago Peace Congress,»9°9)· 100—The American Peace Movement & Social Reform they argued, was like the prevention of disease. Complete knowl­ edge of the disease, gained through research and observation, was necessary before a remedy or immunizing process could be found.2 The older peace societies, many of the new recruits be­ lieved, had largely wasted their efforts in the attempt to stimulate a moral repudiation of war. It was time to replace sermons on the horrors and evils of war with the kind of propaganda that would offer specific, practical proposals based upon a systematic, scien­ tific study of war and international relations. The sense of unprecedented opportunity for success also stimu­ lated a drive for consolidation within the peace movement. The more "practical" men now joining the movement were often ap­ palled at the lack of coordination among the rapidly proliferating peace societies. Andrew Carnegie, already a generous supporter of peace organizations, quietly let it be known as early as 1908 that he might be even more openhanded if presented with a con­ crete and efficient overall plan for the peace movement. Even ear­ lier, Boston publisher Edwin Ginn had stressed the need for a well-financed organization to carry out a massive plan. In 1907 the peace movement took a small step toward unity by organiz­ ing a series of biennial National Peace Congresses bringing to­ gether at least momentarily all the major organizations.3 Beginning in 1909 the drive for consolidation intensified. In that year the Mohonk Conference authorized its president, Nicholas Murray Butler, to appoint a Commmittee of Ten "to consider the advisability of a National Council of Peace and Arbi­ tration." Several weeks earlier Edwin Ginn had set forth a pro­ gram for an International School of Peace to serve as the "nucleus . . . of a great endowment" and a clearing house for "receiving and disbursing contributions."4 Organizers of the National Peace 2 For an example of the use of this analogy, see Carnegie Endowment for Inter­ national Peace, "Minutes—Meeting of Trustees," g Mar. 1911, p. 60, Box 19, Car­ negie Endowment for International Peace Papers, Columbia University Library. 3 Nicholas Murray Butler to Andrew Carnegie, 8 Jan. and 16 Apr. 1909, Carnegie to Butler, 11 Jan. 1909, Hamilton Holt to Butler, 14 Jan. 1909, Andrew Carnegie Papers, MS Div., Library of Congress; Report of the Seventh Annual Meeting of the Lake Mohonk Conference on International...


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