In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:

CHAPTER ONE Up from Sentimentalism THE year 1909, to the casual observer, may easily assume the appearance of a banner year for the peace movement in the United States. Statements by leaders of the movement during that year bristled with pride, expectancy, and optimism. "No congress in our land," boasted Frederick Lynch, gained so large an attend­ ance as the recent New York Arbitration Congress of 1907. "Now we have the sight of statesmen and governors and kings of finance almost fighting each other at peace gatherings to get the rostrum to plead for the peace of the world. . . ." During the same year, Edwin D. Mead in Boston proclaimed the arrival of "the critical hour in the history of the peace movement," an hour when "deci­ sive success...seems clearlywithin sight."1 From a more distant perspective, the single year 1909 retains little of this implied significance as an apogee or turning point within the peace movement in the United States. Prophecies and assessments, equally sanguine, had flowed regularly from the lips and pens of leaders of the peace movement every year since the turn of the century. Yet Lynch and Mead, both of whom were soon to gain positions as directors of endowed peace foundations, were not entirely mistaken in their perceptions. A change had occurred in the peace movement in recent years. Other leaders soon announced their own, corroborating discovery: that the "missionary" or "sentimental" phase of the peace movement had come to an end. A new age of practical advance had begun. With increasing frequency, after about 1909, leaders of the peace movement emphasized how what formerly had been mere­ ly a moral reform was now becoming a "science." Idealists, neces­ sary in their time, were giving way to practical men of affairs. As 1 Lynch, "The Minister in Association with International Movements," in Charles S. Macfarland, ed., The Christian Ministry and the Social Order (New Haven 1909), p. 301; Mead, The Literature of the Peace Movement (Boston 1909), p. 14. For similar expressions of optimism about the "new" peace movement in 1909, see Ad­ vocate of Peace, 71 (Apr. 1909), 91; 71 (May 1909), 100; 71 (June 1909), si; and Benjamin F. Trueblood, "The Present Position of the International Peace Move­ ment," Proceedings of the Second National Peace Congress (Chicago 1909), p. 9¾. 4—The American Peace Movement & Social Reform the sentimental and relatively obscure apostles of peace proved ill equipped to meet the problems and take advantage of the op­ portunities of a new age, prominent businessmen, national re­ ligious and educational leaders, and men of political influence were taking over the leadership of the peace organizations. The day of the statesmanand organizer wasat hand.2 But this much-proclaimed transformation from ineffective idealism to influential practicality had only recently begun. At the turn of the century the peace societies at least partly deserved inclusion among those "somnolent and inactive" reform associa­ tions described by John Jay Chapman as having fine names, an "aroma of original benevolence," and a constituency of "respecta­ ble, rich, lazy and conservative people."3 (Radicals were later to argue that, despite all the recent changes in the peace movement, Chapman's description still applied in 1914.) Having first come of age in the 1830s and 1840s, in company with such compatible moral and social reform movements as temperance, religious per­ fectionism, and abolitionism, the American peace movement car­ ried forward into the twentieth century many characteristics acquired during the reform surge of half a century earlier.4 A number of its leaders at the beginning of the twentieth century were also active in the temperance cause. Many still identified the moral reformism of the peace movement with that of the aboli­ tionist crusade, comparing their progress with that of the aboli­ tionists of the 1850s. Such a comparison served to stimulate their optimism and exaggerate the extent of their radicalism and mar2 William I. Hull, "The New Peace Movement," Swarlhmore College Bulletin, 7 (Sept. 1909), 6; Theodore Marburg, "Salient Thoughts of the Conference," Pro­ ceedings of the American Society for Judicial Settlement of International Disputes, 1910, p. ix; Elihu Root, "The Importance of Judicial Settlement," in ibid., p. 9; Charles E. Beals, "The St. Louis Congress," The Survey, 30 (17 May 1913), 247; Fannie Fern Andrews, "The Objectives of the American School Peace League," enclosure to Andrews to William I. Hull, 5 Jan. 1909, Box 1, William I. Hull Papers, Friends' Historical Library, Swarthmore College; W. H. Short to "Dear...


Additional Information

MARC Record
Launched on MUSE
Open Access
Back To Top

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. Without cookies your experience may not be seamless.