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Notes Introduction: The Confederados 1. The following essays were presented at the conference: chapter 3, "Migration of the McMullan Colonists and Evolution of the Colonies in Brazil," by William Griggs; chapter 4, "Relocating Family and Capital within the Nineteenth-Century Atlantic World Economy: The Brazilian Connection," by Laura Jarnagin; chapter 6, "Southern Religion and Emigres to Brazil, 1865-1885," by Wayne Flynt; chapter 7, "Connections: The Southern Migrants and the Methodist Mission," by James Dawsey; and chapter 9, "Defining the American Descendants in Brazil," by John Dawsey. 2. Ballard Smith Dunn, Brazil, the Home for Southerners; or, A Practical Account of What the Author, and Others, Who Visited That Country, for the Same Objects, Saw and Did While in That Empire (New Orleans: Bloomfield and Steel, 1866); Daniel P. Kidder, Sketches ofResidence and Travels in Brazil, Embracing Historical and Geographical Notices of the Empire and Its Several Provinces, 2 vols. (Philadelphia: Sorin & Ball, 1845); Lansford Warren Hastings, The Emigrant's Guide to Brazil (Mobile, 1867); Lawrence F. Hill, "Confederate Exiles to Brazil," Hispanic American Historical Review 7 (May 1927): 192-210. Hill also wrote "The Confederate Exodus to Latin America," a three-part series published in Southwestern Historical Quarterly 39. The parts have the following subtitles: I: "Romance and Strife," no. 2 (October 1935): 100-134; II: "Dixielands in South America," no. 3 (January 1936): 161-99; and III: "Confederates in Middle America," no. 4 (April 1936): 309-26. Hill's work was also published together as The Confederate Exodus to Latin America (Austin: Texas State Historical Association, 1936). 3. Mark Jefferson, ''An American Colony in Brazil," Geographical Review 18 (1928): 226-31; Peter A. Brannon, "Southern Emigration to Brazil," Alabama Historical Quarterly 1 (Summer 1930): 74-95; (Fall 1930): 280-305; (Winter 1930): 467-88; Blanche Henry Clark Weaver, "Confederate Immigrants and Evangelical Churches in Brazil," Journal of Southern History 18 (1952): 446-68; and "Confederate Emigration to Brazil," Journal ofSouthern History 27 (1961 ): 33-53. 4. Desmond Holdridge, "Toledo: A Tropical Refugee Settlement in British Honduras," Geographical Review 30 (1940): 376-93; James E. Edmonds, "They've Gone-Back Home!" Saturday EveningPost, January 4,1941, pp. 30, 33,46-47; and Jose Arthur Rios, ''Assimilation of Emigrants from the Old South in Brazil," Social Forces 26 (1947): 145-52. 5. Hamilton Basso, "The Last Confederate," New Yorker, November 21, 1953, pp. 143-61; Frank A. Knapp, Jr., ''A New Source on the Confederate Exodus to Mexico: The Two Republics,"Journal ofSouthern History 19 (1953): 364-73; William C. Nunn, Escape from Reconstruction (1956; reprint, Westport, Conn., Greenwood Press, 1974). 6. AlfredJackson Hanna and Kathryn Abbey Hanna, Confederate Exiles in Venezuela , Confederate Centennial Studies, no. 15 (Tuscaloosa, Ala.: Confederate Pub211 212 Notes to Pages 5-13 lishing, 1960); Andrew F. Rolle, The Lost Cause: The Confederate Exodus to Mexico (Norman : University of Oklahoma Press, 1965); Julia L. Keyes, "Our Life, in Brazil," Alabama Historical Quarterly 28 (1966): 127-339; Douglas Grier, "Confederate Emigration to Brazil: 1865-1870" (Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan, 1968). 7. Judith MacKnightJones, Soldado descansa! Uma epopeia norte americana sob os cius do Brasil (Sao Paulo: Jarde, 1967); Frank P. Goldman, Os pioneiros americanos no Brasil: Educadores, sacerdotes, covos, e reis (Sao Paulo: Livraria Pioneira Editora, 1972); Frank Cunningham, "The Lost Colony of the Confederacy," American Mercury 102 (1961): 33-38; Norma de Azevedo Guilhon, Confederados em Santarem: Saga americana na amazonia (Belem, Para: Conselho de Cultura do Estado do Para, 1979); David Afton Riker, 0 ultimo confederado na amazonia (Manaus, Brazil: Imprensa Oficial do Estado de Amazonas, 1983). 8. Daniel E. Sutherland, "Looking for a Home: Louisiana Emigrants during the Civil War and Reconstruction," Louisiana History 21 (1980): 341-59; Sutherland , "Exiles, Emigrants, and Sojourners: The Post-Civil War Confederate Exodus in Perspective," Civil War History 31 (1985): 237-56; Sutherland, The Confederate Carpetbaggers (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1988); Betty Antunes de Oliveira, Movimento de passageiros norte-americanos no porto do Rio deJaneiro (Rio de Janeiro, 1981); David Gueiros Vieira, 0 protestantismo, a ma(:onaria e a questiio religiosa no Brasil (Brasilia: Editora Universidade de Brasilia, 1980); Charles Willis Simmons, "Racist Americans in a Multi-Racial Society: Confederate Exiles in Brazil ," Journal ofNegro History 67 (1982): 34-39; Eugene C. Harter, The Lost Colony of the Confederacy (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1985); Frank]. Merli, "Alternative to Appomattox: A Virginian's Vision of an Anglo-Confederate Colony on the Amazon, May, 1865," Virginia Magazine ofHistory and Biography 94 (1986): 21019 ; William Clark Griggs...


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