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Index Abdel-Malek, Anouar, 63 Abd-el-Wahab, 111n8 Abduh, Muhammad, 95, 104 Abdul Aleen Siddiqui, Maulana, 277 Abdul Haqq, Daud, 209n7 Abdullah, Asim, 240 Abdullah, Fareed, 192 Abdullah, Sharifa Ali, 240, 241–42 Abolition, of slavery, 34, 86n2, 189, 208n5; France and, 146, 147, 149; Great Britain and, 188, 224, 244n11, 273 Abolition Day, 149–50, 152, 154 Abu/aboo (father), 205 Abu Bakr (Almoravid leader), 275 Abu Bakr, Fuad, 271, 279 Abu-Bakr, Yasin (Philip, Lennox), 271, 272, 310 Abu Bakr II (King of Mali), 135n3 Adas, Michael, 86n4 Adultery, 14, 79, 172 Al-Afghani, Jamal ad-Din, 95, 96, 101, 108 Afghanistan, 32, 64 African Americans, 97, 105, 107, 275; Freemasons , 49, 55–57, 60; Shriners, 54–64; stereotypes, 58. See also Hip Hop; Nation of Islam African Blood Brotherhood, 108 Africans, 196; in Puerto Rico, 10, 121; slaves, 122, 151, 188, 224–25, 253, 274, 276–77, 297–98 The African Times and Orient Review, 107 African Trinidadians, 276–77, 279, 287, 290n3 Africanus, Leo, 300–301 Afroz, Sultana, 202 Al-Ahasan, Abdullah, 202 Ahmad, Mirza Gulam, 88n19 Ahmadiyya reformist movement, 33, 75, 88n19 Ahmed, Akbar, 29 Aisha. See Ayesha Aitchison, Cara Carmichael, 269 Alcohol, 7, 79, 123, 174 Ali, Ameer, 227, 228 Ali, Basharat, 245n37 Ali, Duse Mohammed, 107 Ali, Hafiz Yacoob, 300 Ali, Jerusa, 14–15 Ali, Moulvi Ameer, 16, 238, 245n18, 245n22, 245n37, 308; with emancipation of Islamic women, 226–31; influence of, 217, 239; with TML, 233, 236 Ali, Noble Drew (Drew, Timothy), 62, 275, 291n10 Ali, Nurrn Nahar, 228 Ali, Yacoob, 226 Ali, Zaffar, 245n18 Ali, Zubair, 192 Alienation, 15, 192–94 Alim, Samy, 121, 131, 134 Ali-Mohammed, Haffizool, 291n12 Alladin, M. P., 315 Allah/Allaah, 61, 130, 169, 205, 218, 261; mosques and, 224, 244n7; Quran and, 118, 132, 225. See also Nur E Islam Masjid Allen, Harry, 130 Almazan, Pascual, 34 Amulets, 188 Anderson, Benedict, 120–21 Anglican Church of St. John the Divine, 244n4 Animism, 7, 73 332 · Index Anjuman Sunnat ul-Jamaat (ASJA), 17, 228, 230, 264n1, 266n15, 323n7; elections, 249, 251–61, 264; Nur E Islam Masjid and, 233; Quran and, 300 Ansar Laah, 272 Anthony, Susan B., 106 Antimodern, 29–30 Anti-slavery legislation, 149, 188, 208n5, 273 Apartheid, 219 Appropriation, 175; of Hip Hop, 124; of Islam, 6–7, 13, 174, 181, 182 ‘Aqidah/‘aqeedah (creed), 193, 200, 206 Arabic, 73, 104, 167, 197, 270, 323n6; Arabization and, 89n43; with education, 192; Muslims and, 169, 180, 183n9, 183n10, 203–4, 208n3, 296, 303, 304, 321, 322; slavery and, 188, 189 Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age (Hourani), 111n3 Arabization, 7, 15, 83, 89n43, 193 Arabs, 12, 58, 116, 201, 203–4 Architecture, 20; with Hosay festival as performance art, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316; Islamic iconography with, 307–11 Arrival Day, 149–50 Arslan, Shakib, 104–5 Art, 306, 308, 315. See also Performance art, Hosay festival as Artists. See Graffiti artists; Muslim Puerto Rican hip-hop artists Asad, Talal, 1, 29–30, 39, 40 Ashura, 206 Asian Marriage Law, 8, 72–73, 85 Asiatics, 98–99, 102, 109, 275 ASJA. See Anjuman Sunnat ul-Jamaat Askew, Kelly, 120 ‘Assabiyah/‘assabiyaah (prejudice), 203, 206 As-Saleh, Saleh, 193 As-Siddiq, ‘Aisha bint Abu Bakar, 200 Association of Indonesians. See Persatuan Indonesia Atlantic Charter, 76 Atteck, Sybil, 315 Authenticity: of Arab Muslims, 201, 203–4; marriage and, 200–201; Muslim Puerto Rican hip-hop artists and, 10, 117–19, 120 Avoidance protest, 70, 86n4 Aydin, Cemil, 93, 94, 95, 104, 111n4 Ayesha (Aisha), 218, 225 Aziz, Syed Abdul, 264n2 Back to the Fatherland. See Yayasan Tanah Air Bada/Id ul Fitre, 83, 89n42 Al-Badiya, Bahithat. See Nasif, Malak Hifni Badran, Margot, 217, 219, 222, 227, 244n17 Bahamas, 188, 189 Bahamian and Brazilian muslimahs/muslimas : with cultural identity as “moving vehicle” of difference, 187, 193–98; ideal, 15, 187, 193, 198–202, 205; identity and, 14–15, 186–87, 193–98; Islam and, 188–93; with ummah and cultural space, 202–5 Bal, Ellen, 38 Ballack, Lorris, 279 Bambaataa, Afrika, 124, 128, 131, 132 Bamboo Settlement, 239–42 Bandung Conference, 110 Banquet invitation, Shriners, 59 Baptiste, Fitzroy, 297 Baptiste, Jeanne, 18–19 Barber, Benjamin, 29 Barlas, Asma, 282, 286, 287 Bath, Yunus (Jonas) Mohammad, 224, 276, 296, 297 Battle of Kerbala, 306, 314, 323n9 B-boy/b-girling, 116, 124, 125, 126, 128 Beards, 320 Be glorified and exalted. See SWT Begum, Nawabzadu Nushat Ara, 245n21 Beinart, Peter, 38 Benefit societies, 192 Bernab...

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